Lesson Nine

We now are going to move in another direction namely:

But as usual lets take a minute to review this as we continue through the course;

true science is facts that have been substantiated by observation, or reproduction with corresponding results to that being tested.

Science = knowledge

Scientific method – Method of research with defined steps that include experiments and careful observation. And, –Tests the hypothesis

Hypothesis – suggested explanation for an event, which can be tested.

Scientific Theory= A scientific theory is a generally accepted, thoroughly tested and confirmed explanation for a set of observations or phenomena.

Laws = concise descriptions of parts of the world that are agreeable to formulaic or mathematical description.

Again, first scientific theory to explain something that exists, Scientific method, is the way we test the theory that leads to Hypotheses, or tentative explanations and when all testing confirms the theory you have becomes scientific law… 2 + 2 = 4 is a mathematical fact, and a scientific fact and therefore a “law”.

Anthropic principle:  The earth was designed for biological life, Scientists have discovered that the most fundamental characteristics of our earth and cosmos are so finely tuned that if just one of them were even slightly different, life as we know it couldn’t exist, and it agrees with the Bible which states that God formed the earth to be inhabited (Isaiah 45:18).

1st law of Thermal dynamics: The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed.

2nd law of Thermal dynamics says, in simple terms, entropy (Entropy is the general trend of the universe toward death and disorder…)  always increases. This principle explains, for example, why you can’t unscramble an egg.  In other words, it is dying…

Uniformitarianism is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe.

So True Science comes within all these Boundaries…. Apologetics is a defense that God exists proven by scientific principles and laws:

The earth is finely tuned, yet running down, and there is only a certain amount of energy that exists even though it may be changed from one for to another, for instance when gas is burned it is turned into carbon dioxide, Creation fulfills these laws and principles according to correct scientific procedure.

Finally, we find modern science confirms scripture.

Lesson Aim:

Morality and Ethics

The Anthropological Argument

Today we continue our examination of four powerful evidences for the existence of God. The anthropological argument is based on the presence of human beings (“Anthropos” means “human”) on the earth. Consider several unique aspects of human beings.

All rational people are concerned, to a greater or lesser degree, about human moral, and ethical conduct. How we act, and are acted upon, with respect to our fellow man determines the progress and happiness of mankind and ultimately, contributes in one form or another to human destiny. The existence of, and need for, morality and ethics are self-evident. No sane person would argue that absolutely anything goes. The expressions “ought” and “ought not” are as much a part of the atheist’s vocabulary as anyone else’s. While it is true that a person may become so insensitive that he abandons virtually all of his personal ethical obligations, he will never be willing to ignore the lack of such in those who would abuse him.

So far as creatures of the Earth are concerned, morality is uniquely a human trait—a fact even unbelievers concede. For example, although evolutionist George Gaylord Simpson argued that “man is the result of a purposeless and materialistic process that did not have him in mind,” he admitted that “good and evil, right and wrong, concepts irrelevant in nature except from the human viewpoint, become real and pressing features of the whole cosmos as viewed morally because morals arise only in man” (1951, p.179, emp. added). Animals do not operate according to any ethical code. A dog feels no pangs of conscience when it steals a bone from its peers; a fighting rooster knows no remorse when mortally wounding another. Men, however, acknowledge the existence of morality and ethics.

Since it is evident universally that morals and ethics do exist, the question becomes: what is their origin? There are but two options. Morality and ethics are either: theocentric – that is, centered in an external source of eternal goodness, namely, God; or anthropocentric – that is, grounded in the mind of man as a creature that evolved naturally as a result of inanimate forces operation over eons of cosmic and geologic time (see Geisler and Corduan, 1988, pp.109-122)

How does atheism explain the origin of morality? Since the unbeliever does not believe that there is an eternal Mind with which goodness is coexistent, i.e., an intrinsically moral being, obviously he must contend that somehow raw, eternal, inorganic matter was able, by means of an extended evolutionary process, to concoct, promote, and maintain morality. Such a theory is self-defeating for two reasons. First, it wrongly assumes that man, with that evolved mass of cerebral tissue between his ears, somehow is capable of discovering “moral truth.” Why should he be? Charles Darwin declared that “there is no fundamental difference between man and the higher mammals in their mental faculties” (as quoted in Francis Darwin, 1889, 1:64). Since no other animal on the long, meandering evolutionary chain can locate and live by “moral truth, ‘should we then be expected to trust a “naked ape” (to use evolutionary zoologist Desmond Morris’ colorful expression) to formulate ethics? Darwin himself opined: “Can the mind of man, which has, as I fully believe, been developed from a mind as low as that possessed by the lowest animals, be trusted when it draws such grand conclusions?” (as quoted in Francis Darwin, 1889, 1:282).

Second, it should be clear that “raw matter” is impotent to evolve any sense of moral consciousness. Simpson inadvertently conceded this point when he wrote.

Discovery that the universe apart from man or before his coming lacks and lacked any purpose or plan has the inevitable corollary that the workings of the universe cannot provide any automatic, universal, eternal, or absolute ethical criteria of right and wrong (1951, p. 180)


Unbelief therefor must, and does, contend that there is no ultimate standard of moral/ethical truth, and that morality and ethics are, at best, relative and situational. Thus, if morality is man-authorized, hence, man-centered, it is utterly impossible to argue for any singular system of ethics to which one could consistently urge his fellows to subscribe. Rather, billions of ethical systems would exist (as many as there are people), each frequently at variance with many of the others, yet, oddly, each equally valid. Who could ever charge correctly that someone else’s conduct was “wrong,” or that a man “ought “or “ought not” to do thus and so? The simple fact of the matter is that infidelity cannot reasonably explain the origin of morality and ethics. These concepts can be explained adequately only by appealing to the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient God.

  1. What is the American definition of Apology? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. What is the Greek definition as used in 1 Peter 3:15 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. What is the foundation of Science? _________________________________________________


  1. What is Scientific method? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. What is the one word definition of Science ? __________________________________________


  1. Describe the Scientific method ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. What is a Hypothesis ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Describe Scientific Theory ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. What are scientific Laws ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  3. What does scientific theory explain? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Give a simple explanation of the Anthropic principle ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. What is the 1st law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. What is the 2nd law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Explain Uniformitarianism ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________