We continue with “The Body”
Remember this as we continue through the course; true science is facts that have been substantiated by observation, or reproduction with corresponding results to that being tested.
Science = knowledge
Scientific method – Method of research with defined steps that include experiments and careful observation. And, –Tests the hypothesis
Hypothesis – suggested explanation for an event, which can be tested.
Scientific Theory= A scientific theory is a generally accepted, thoroughly tested and confirmed explanation for a set of observations or phenomena.
Laws = concise descriptions of parts of the world that are agreeable to formulaic or mathematical description.
Again, first scientific theory to explain something that exists, Scientific method, is the way we test the theory that leads to Hypotheses, or tentative explanations and when all testing confirms the theory you have becomes scientific law… 2 + 2 = 4 is a mathematical fact, and a scientific fact and therefore a “law”.
Anthropic principle: The earth was designed for biological life, Scientists have discovered that the most fundamental characteristics of our earth and cosmos are so finely tuned that if just one of them were even slightly different, life as we know it couldn’t exist, and it agrees with the Bible which states that God formed the earth to be inhabited (Isaiah 45:18).
1st law of Thermal dynamics: The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed.
2nd law of Thermal dynamics says, in simple terms, entropy (Entropy is the general trend of the universe toward death and disorder…) always increases. This principle explains, for example, why you can’t unscramble an egg. In other words, it is dying…
Uniformitarianism is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe.
So True Science comes within all these Boundaries…. Apologetics is a defense that God exists proven by scientific principles and laws:
The earth is finely tuned, yet running down, and there is only a certain amount of energy that exists even though it may be changed from one for to another, for instance when gas is burned it is turned into carbon dioxide, Creation fulfills these laws and principles according to correct scientific procedure.
Finally, we find modern science confirms scripture.
THE BODY’S TISSUES
In the human body, there are numerous tissues (e.g., muscle tissues, nerve tissues, etc.). In fact, a single human has more that 600 muscles (containing about six billion muscle fibers), composing about 40% pf the body’s weight. According to Dr. I. MacKay Murray, professor of anatomy at the State University of New York, muscles are the “engines” of the body that provide the power for movement (1969, p.22). Some muscles are tiny, such as those regulating the amount of light entering the eye, while others, like those n the legs, are massive.
Muscles may be classified either as “voluntary” (i.e., under the control of the human will), or “involuntary” (i.e., not under control of the will). The voluntary muscles of the arms, for example, are attached to the bones by tough cords of connective tissue called tendons. One must “think” in order to move these muscles. The involuntary muscles are those whose contraction and relaxation cannot be controlled consciously (e.g., the heart and intestines). Some muscles are both voluntary and involuntary (e.g., the muscles controlling the eyelids, and the diaphragm). All muscles, in one way or another, are regulated by the nervous system.
Muscles work by contracting (tightening). When they contract, they shorten, thus exerting a “pull”; muscles do not “push.” Frequently, muscles work in pairs, as in the voluntary skeletal muscles. The biceps in the upper arm pulls the for arm forward, whereas the triceps moves the forearm downward. While one works, the other rests. The design inherent in such tissues is utterly amazing.
Some muscles, like those attached to the skeleton, are analogous ot strong steel cables. Each muscle is constructed of long cells combined in small bundles called fibers. These bundles are bound together, making larger bundles of which the whole muscle consists. Muscle fibers vary in size from a few hundred-thousandths of an inch, to an inch or inch-and-a-half in length. Each muscle has its own stored supply of high-grade fuel, especially sugar (glycogen), which the body has manufactured from food that has been consumed. This analogy may be helpful. In an automobile engine, the spark ignites vaporized gasoline, the piston moves, and keeps moving in response to a series of explosions. “A muscle performs the functions of both the spark and the piston; the cell itself splits a molecule of fuel and also exerts the resulting physical power” (Miller and Goode, 1960, p. 23). If it is clear that an automobile engine was intelligently designed, why is it not reasonable to draw the same conclusion with reference to muscles. Lenihan, even though an evolutionist, writes: “The body’s engines [muscles-BT/WJ]… demonstrate some surprisingly modern engineering ideas” (1974, p. 43). The question is: Who initiated these “engineering ideas”? The answer, of course, is the Great Designer, God.
Connected to the skeletal muscle is a nerve. The nerve conveys a signal telling the muscle when to contract or relax. Obviously, there must be precise orchestration between the skeletal muscle system and the nervous system. Without doubt, their cooperative nature was planned. Some muscles, like those in the stomach, are stimulated to work by means of chemicals called hormones.
Further, there is a precisely -integrated relationship between muscles and bones. Here is just one such example. “As certain muscles increase in strength, they pull harder than before on the bones to which they are attached. With this as a stimulus, bone-forming cells build new bone to give internal reinforcement where necessary” (Shryock, 1968, p.27). would this indicate design?
In his book, Human Design, evolutionist William S. Beck could hardly contain himself when he wrote of “the intricate structural organization” of the muscles and tendons in the hand, which are capable of such a wide variety of actions. But “intricate structural organization” indicates design. Beck characterized this phenomenon as “one of evolution’s most remarkable achievements” (1971, p. 691), Remarkable indeed! A number of years ago, an article on the human hand appeared in the magazine, “Today’s Health, published by the American Medical Associations. Though saturated with evolutionary concepts (e.g., the hand is alleged to have evolved from a fish’s fin), the article conceded:
…if the most gifted scientists cuddled their brains they probably could not come up with a stronger or more perfect tool for grasping and delicate manipulations than the human hand. And seen from an engineering stand point, the loveliest hand is a highly complex mechanical device composed of muscle, bone, tendon, fat, and extremely sensitive nerve fibers, capable of performing thousands of jobs with precision (Wylie, 1962, p. 25, emp. Added).
But something “engineered” requires an engineer. That is just sound logic.
While many living organisms share common muscle activity, there are some muscle movements that are unique to man. These forcefully demonstrate that the human being is not some kind of “evolved animal,” Rather, he is a creature “fearfully and wonderfully made” by a Creator. Observe the following quotation from two evolutionists, which no doubt reals more than these authors intended. They, ask yourself how scientists can echo these sentiments and still ignore the evidence of design in nature that demands a Designer.
Only man can combine muscle with intelligence and imagination, plan and purpose, to plow and plant a field, to create a museum masterpiece or the “Gettysburg Address.” And only man trains to perform the most highly coordinated forms of bodily motion for their own sake, in the expressive and athletic arts. We applaud this skill in our species every time we clap our hands for a ballerina or a circus aerialist (Miller and Goode, 1960, p. 21(.
The skin is the largest single organ of the human body. It consists of three areas: (a)the skin layers; (b) the glands; and (c) the nails. If the skin of a 150-pound man were spread out, it would cover 20 square feet of space and weigh about 9 pounds. The skin is also a very busy area. “Apiece of skin the size of a quarter contains 1 years of blood vessels, 4 yards of nerves, 25 nerve ends, 100 sweat glands, and more than 3 million cells” (Youmans, 1979, 17:404d).
The skin, containing two major layers, is on average, only about one-eighth of an inch thick. The epidermis is the upper layer, and consists of rows of cells about 12 to 15 deep. The uppermost layers are dead, and are being replaced constantly with newly-formed living cells. It would be an interesting question to ask: What man-made house replaces its own covering? The epidermis contains a pigment called melanin, which gives the skin its distinctive color. The lower layer is designated as the dermis, and is joined to he epidermis by a corrugated surface that contains nerves and blood vessels. When a cut finger draws blood, the dermis has been reached. Within the dermis there are two kinds of glands—sweat and oil.
The ends of the fingers and toes are protected by a horn-like substance, usually referred to as the toenail or fingernail. Actually, most of the nail is dead; only the lower, crescent-shaped, white portion is living. The fingernails grow about three times as fast as the toenails, which is certainly evidence of good design, considering the respective functions of the hands and feet. The skin of the underside of the fingers, the palms, and the soles of the feet have a special friction surface, and no hair. These areas, like the knurling on a tool handle or the tread of a tire, have been designed specifically for gripping (see Miller and Goode, 1960,p. 345).
Hair has several functions. It is a part of the body’s sentry system. Eyelashes warn the eyes to close when foreign objects strike them. Body hairs also serve as levers, connected to muscles, to help squeeze the oil glands. Hair acts as a filter in the ears and nose. Hair grows to a certain length, falls out, and then, in most instances, is replaced by anew hair. Hair is “programmed” to grow only to a certain length. But who provided the “program”? Compared to most mammals, man is relatively hairless. But why is this the case? A strong case can be made for the fact that the best explanation is to be found “in the design of the human body with personhood in view” (Cosgrove, 1987, p.54). Skin touch is very closely associated with human emotions.
Human skin is one of the body’s most vital organs. Its value may be summarized as follows.
- The skin is a protective fortification that keeps harmful bacteria from entering the human system.
- It is a waterproof wall that holds in the fluids of the body. Our bodies are about 75% fluid.
- It protects the interior parts of the body from cuts, bruises, etc.
- With its pigment, melanin, it shields the body from harmful rays arriving on the Earth from the Sun. Beck calls melanin “an epidermal light filter” (1971, p. 745). Do light filters invented by man require intelligence?
- The skins’ many nerve endings make it sensitive to touch, cold, heat, pain, and pressure. Thus, it is a major sense organ.
- The sweat glands (2 to 5 million in the whole body) help eliminate waste products and also function in cooling the skin.
- The oil glands lubricate the skin and help keep it soft—while at the same time providing a waterproofing system. Though soft, the skin is quite durable. When a 2,000-year-old Egyptian mummy was fingerprinted, the ridges were found to be perfectly preserved (Guinness, 1987, p. 132),
- About one-third of the body’s blood circulates through the skin. The blood vessels, by contracting and expanding, work to regulate body temperature. If body temperature increases by 7 or 8 degrees and remains there for any length of time, a person almost always will die. The skin is thus a radiator system (see Brand and Yancey, 1980, p. 154). Does a radiator happen by accident?
- The skin absorbs ultraviolet rays from the Sun, and uses them to convert chemicals into vitamin D, which the body needs for the utilization of calcium. The skin is therefore a chemical-processing plant for the entire body.
- What is the American definition of Apology? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the Greek definition as used in 1 Peter 3:15 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the foundation of Science? _________________________________________________
- What is Scientific method? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the one word definition of Science ? __________________________________________
- Describe the Scientific method ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is a Hypothesis ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Describe Scientific Theory ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What are scientific Laws ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What does scientific theory explain? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Give a simple explanation of the Anthropic principle ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the 1st law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the 2nd law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Explain Uniformitarianism ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________