The Human Body
Remember this as we continue through the course; true science is facts that have been substantiated by observation, or reproduction with corresponding results to that being tested.
Science = knowledge
Scientific method – Method of research with defined steps that include experiments and careful observation. And, –Tests the hypothesis
Hypothesis – suggested explanation for an event, which can be tested.
Scientific Theory= A scientific theory is a generally accepted, thoroughly tested and confirmed explanation for a set of observations or phenomena.
Laws = concise descriptions of parts of the world that are agreeable to formulaic or mathematical description.
Again, first scientific theory to explain something that exists, Scientific method, is the way we test the theory that leads to Hypotheses, or tentative explanations and when all testing confirms the theory you have becomes scientific law… 2 + 2 = 4 is a mathematical fact, and a scientific fact and therefore a “law”.
Anthropic principle: The earth was designed for biological life, Scientists have discovered that the most fundamental characteristics of our earth and cosmos are so finely tuned that if just one of them were even slightly different, life as we know it couldn’t exist, and it agrees with the Bible which states that God formed the earth to be inhabited (Isaiah 45:18).
1st law of Thermal dynamics: The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed.
2nd law of Thermal dynamics says, in simple terms, entropy (Entropy is the general trend of the universe toward death and disorder…) always increases. This principle explains, for example, why you can’t unscramble an egg. In other words, it is dying…
Uniformitarianism is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe.
So True Science comes within all these Boundaries…. Apologetics is a defense that God exists proven by scientific principles and laws:
The earth is finely tuned, yet running down, and there is only a certain amount of energy that exists even though it may be changed from one for to another, for instance when gas is burned it is turned into carbon dioxide, Creation fulfills these laws and principles according to correct scientific procedure.
Finally, we find modern science confirms scripture.
In the first lesson of this course I made this observation:
a 200-part system is a ridiculously primitive element compared with living systems. Modern research by NASA has demonstrated that the most basic type of protein molecule that could be classified living is composed of at least 400 linked amino acids. Each amino acid, in turn, is made up of a specific arrangement of four or five chemical elements, and each chemical element is itself a unique combination of protons, neutrons and electrons. Golay has demonstrated that the chance formation of even the simplest replicating protein molecule is 1 in 10 to the 450th power.
Wysong has calculated the probability of forming the proteins and DNA for the smallest self-replicating entity to be 1 in 10 to the 167,626 power, even when granting astronomically generous amounts of time and reagents, who can imagine what the chance formation of a more complex structure or organ such as the cerebral cortex in the human brain would be? It contains over 10,000,000,000 (ten thousand million, 10 billion) cells each of which is carefully arranged according to a specific design, and each of which is fantastically complex in itself!
Schutzenberger of the University of Paris at a conference on “Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution, “concluded that the probability of evolution by mutation and natural selection is inconceivable.
“We believe that it is not conceivable. In fact if we try to simulate such a situation by making changes randomly at the typographic level…on computer programs we find that we have no chance. (i.e. less than 1/10 to the 1,000 power) even to see what the modified program would compute; it just jams”
(Schutzenberger, algorithms and the Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution, in mathematical challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution.)
The facts are clear. We serve an awesome God. He created everything in such a complex manner that humans can’t even count high enough to consider the odds, computers can’t count high enough. We were barely able to compute the odds against a simple 200-part organism developing by chance and found it was impossible.
With that in mind, today’s lesson start we will be looking at the human body, and we will be looking at the facts of the human body over the next few weeks, there is so much information, and it is so astounding it takes a while to take an honest look at the important argument against evolution.
A human Body is composed of over 30 different kinds of cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, etc.), totaling approximately 100 trillion cells in an average adult (Beck, 1971, p.189). these cells come in a variety of sizes and shapes, with different functions and life expectancies. For example, some cells (e.g., male spermatozoa) are so small that 20,000 would fit inside a capital “O” from a standard typewriter, each being only 0.05 mm long. Some cells, placed end-to-end, would make only one inch if 6,000 were assembled together. Yet all the cells of the human body, if set end-to-end, would encircle the Earth over 200 times. Even the largest cell of the human body, the female ovum, is unbelievably small, being only 0.0a of an inch in diameter.
Cells have three major components. First, each cell is composed of a cell membrane that encloses the organism. Second, inside the cell is a three-dimensional cytoplasm-a watery matrix containing specialized organelles. Third, within the cytoplasm is the nucleus, which contains most of the gentic material, and which serves as the control center of the cell.
The lipoprotein cell membrane (lipids/proteins/lipids) is approximately 0.06-0.08 of a micrometer thick, yet allows selective transport into, and out of, the cell. Evolutionists Ernest Borek has observed: “The membrane recongnizes with its uncanny molecular memory the hundreds of compounds swimming around it and permits or denies passage according to the cell’s requirements” (1973, p. 5.)
Inside the cytoplasm, there are over 20 different chemical reactions occurring at any one time, with each cell containing five major components for: (1) communication; (2) Waste disposal; (3) nutrition; (4) repair; and (5) reproduction. Within this watery matrix there are such organelles as the mitochondria (over 1,000 per cell in many instances) that provide the cell with its energy. The endoplasmic reticulum is a “…transport system designed to carry materials from one part of the cell to the other” (Pfeiffer, 1964, p.13). Ribosomes are miniature protein-producing factories. Golgi bodies store the proteins manufactured by the ribosomes. Lysosomes within the cytoplasm function as garbage disposal units.
The nucleus is the control center of the cell, and is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane. Within the nucleus is the genetic machinery of the cell (Chromosomes and genes containing deoxyribonucleic acid – DNA. The DNA is a super molecule that carries the coded information for the replication of the cell. If the DNA from a single human cell were removed from the nucleus and unraveled (it is found in the cell in a spiral configuration), it would be approximately six feet long, and would contain over a billion biochemical steps. It has been estimated that if all the DNA in an adult human were placed end-to-end, it would reach ot the Sun and back (186 million miles) 400 times.
It should also be noted that the DNA molecule does something that we as humans have yet to accomplish: it stores coded information in a chemical format, and then uses a biologic agent (RNA) to decode and activate it. As Darrel Kautz has stated: “Human technology has not yet advanced to the point of storing information chemically as it is in the DNA molecule” (I “googled” this information on 12/13/2017 and found no evidence that it is no possible) (1988, p. 45, emp. In orig.’ see also Jackson, 1993, pp. 11-12). If transcribed into English, the DNA in a single human cell would fill a 1,000 volume set of encyclopedias approximately 600 pages each (Gore, 1976, p. 357). Yet just as amazing is the fact that all the genetic information needed to reproduce the entire human population (about five billion people as this writing/ now over 7 billion people) could be placed into a space of about one-eight of a square inch. In comparing the amount of information contained in the DNA molecule with a much larger computer microchip, evolutionist Irvin Block remarked: “We marvel at the feats of memory and transcription accomplished by computer microchips, but these are gargantuan compared to the protein granules of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA” (1980, p. 52).
In an article written for Encyclopedia Britannica, Carl Sagan observed that “the information content of a simple cell has been estimated at around 1012 bits [i.e., one trillion BT/WJ]…” (1974, 10:894). To emphasize to the reader the enormity of this figure, Dr. Sagan then noted that if one were to count every letter in every word of every book in the world’s largest library (over 10 million volumes), the final tally would be approximately a trillion letters. Thus, a single cell contains the equivalent information content of every book in the world’s largest library of more than ten million volumes! Every rational person recognizes that not one of the books in such a library “just happened.” Rather, each and every one is the result of intelligence and painstaking design.
What, then, may we say about the infinitely more complex genetic code found with the DNA in each cell? Sir Fred Hoyle concluded that the notion that such complexity could be arrived at by chance is “nonsense of a high order” (1981b, p. 527). In their text on the origin of life, Thaxton, Bradley, and Olsen addressed the implications of the genetic code.
We know that in numerous cases certain effects always have intelligent causes, such as dictionaries, sculptures, machines, and paintings. We reason by analogy that similar effects have intelligent causes. For Example, after looking up to see “BUY FORD” spelled out in smoke across the sky we infer the presence of a skywriter even if heard or saw no airplane. We would similarly conclude the presence of intelligent activity were we to come upon an elephant-shaped topiary in a cedar forest. In like manner an intelligible communication via radio signal from some distant galaxy would be widely hailed as evidence of an intelligent source. Why then doesn’t the message sequence on the DNA molecule also constitute primacies evidence for an intelligent source? After all, DNA information is not just analogous to a message sequence such as Morse code, it is such a message sequence…
We believe that if this question is considered, it will be seen that most often it is answered in the negative simply because it is thought to be inappropriate to bring a creator into science (1984, pp. 211-212, emp. In orig.).
The intricate and complex nature of the DNA molecule- combined with the staggering amount of chemically-coded information that it contains – speaks unerringly to the fact that this “super molecule” simply could not have come into existence due to blind chance and random natural forces operating through eons of time, as evolutions have claimed. This is not an adequate explanation for the inherent complexity of the DNA molecule. Andrews was correct when he stated:
It is not possible for a code, of any kind, to arise by chance or accident… A code is the work of an intelligent mind. Even the cleverest dog or chimpanzee could not work out a code of any kind. It is obvious then that chance cannot do it… this could no more have been the work of chance or accident that could the “Moonlight Sonata” be played by mice running up and down the keyboard of my piano! Codes do not arise from chaos (1978. Pp. 28-29).
Indeed, codes to not arise from chaos. When Dawkins suggested that “superficially, the obvious alternative to chance is an intelligent Designer, ‘obviously he intended his comment as a somewhat satirical insult aimed at theists who were capable of thinking only “superficially” (1982, p. 130, emp. Added). However, it is hardly superficial to suggest that obvious design demands a designer. In fact, that is the exact point the theist is stressing: the evidence demands an intelligent Designer.
harder than before on the bones to which they are attached. With this as a stimulus, bone-forming cells build new bone to give internal reinforcement where necessary” (Shryock, 1968, p.27). would this indicate design?
In his book, Human Design, evolutionist William S. Beck could hardly contain himself when he wrote of “the intricate structural organization” of the muscles and tendons in the hand, which are capable of such a wide variety of actions. But “intricate structural organization” indicates design. Beck characterized this phenomenon as “one of evolution’s most remarkable achievements” (1971, p. 691), Remarkable indeed! A number of years ago, an article on the human hand appeared in the magazine, “Today’s Health, published by the American Medical Associations. Though saturated with evolutionary concepts (e.g., the hand is alleged to have evolved from a fish’s fin), the article conceded:
…if the most gifted scientists cuddled their brains they probably could not come up with a stronger or more perfect tool for grasping and delicate manipulations than the human hand. And seen from an engineering stand point, the loveliest hand is a highly complex mechanical device composed of muscle, bone, tendon, fat, and extremely sensitive nerve fibers, capable of performing thousands of jobs with precision (Wylie, 1962, p. 25, emp. Added).
But something “engineered” requires an engineer. That is just sound logic.
While many living organisms share common muscle activity, there are some muscle movements that are unique to man. These forcefully demonstrate that the human being is not some kind of “evolved animal,” Rather, he is a creature “fearfully and wonderfully made” by a Creator.
Only man can combine muscle with intelligence and imagination, plan and purpose, to plow and plant a field, to create a museum masterpiece or the “Gettysburg Address.” And only man trains to perform the most highly coordinated forms of bodily motion for their own sake, in the expressive and athletic arts. We applaud this skill in our species every time we clap our hands for a ballerina or a circus aerialist (Miller and Goode, 1960, p. 21).
- What is the American definition of Apology? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the Greek definition as used in 1 Peter 3:15 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the foundation of Science? _________________________________________________
- What is Scientific method? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the one word definition of Science ? __________________________________________
- Describe the Scientific method ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is a Hypothesis ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Describe Scientific Theory ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What are scientific Laws ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What does scientific theory explain? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Give a simple explanation of the Anthropic principle ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the 1st law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the 2nd law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Explain Uniformitarianism ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Finish this statement: Schutzenberger of the University of Paris at a conference on “Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution, “concluded: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- A human Body is composed of over 30 different kinds of cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, etc.) What is the approximate number of cells involved? ______________________