Lesson FiveRemember this as we continue through the course; true science is facts that have been substantiated by observation, or reproduction with corresponding results to that being tested.Science = knowledgeScientific method – Method of research with defined steps that include experiments and careful observation. And, -Tests the hypothesisHypothesis – suggested explanation for an event, which can be tested.Scientific Theory= A scientific theory is a generally accepted, thoroughly tested and confirmed explanation for a set of observations or phenomena.Laws = concise descriptions of parts of the world that are agreeable to formulaic or mathematical description.Again, first scientific theory to explain something that exists, Scientific method, is the way we test the theory that leads to Hypotheses, or tentative explanations and when all testing confirms the theory you have becomes scientific law… 2 + 2 = 4 is a mathematical fact, and a scientific fact and therefore a “law”.Anthropic principle:  The earth was designed for biological life, Scientists have discovered that the most fundamental characteristics of our earth and cosmos are so finely tuned that if just one of them were even slightly different, life as we know it couldn’t exist, and it agrees with the Bible which states that God formed the earth to be inhabited (Isaiah 45:18).1st law of Thermal dynamics: The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed.2nd law of Thermal dynamics says, in simple terms, entropy (Entropy is the general trend of the universe toward death and disorder…)  always increases. This principle explains, for example, why you can’t unscramble an egg.  In other words, it is dying…Uniformitarianism is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe.So True Science comes within all these Boundaries…. Apologetics is a defense that God exists proven by scientific principles and laws:The earth is finely tuned, yet running down, and there is only a certain amount of energy that exists even though it may be changed from one for to another, for instance when gas is burned it is turned into carbon dioxide, Creation fulfills these laws and principles according to correct scientific procedure.Finally, we find modern science confirms scripture.Lesson Aim:  A preview and discussion timeUniqueness of the EarthThe existence of a creation necessitates the reality of a Creator. Intricate design requires a careful and intelligent Master Designer; a watch needs a watchmaker. This pure and simple logic.Let us suppose when the astronauts landed on the moon that they found a highly advanced computer system situated among the rocks. Would it be reasonable and logical for them to conclude that it just happened to “evolve” through the fortuitous collisions of meteorites with local terrestrial rock formations or through some other such accidental event? Or would it be more logical to conclude that it was carefully designed and built by an intelligent creator? Common sense dictates the latter explanation, of course! What about the chance occurrence of a blender transforming itself into the Apollo 16 moon rocket? Is this preposterous, insensible, ridiculous, and absurd? No more so than saying out of accidental combinations of molecules, which somehow came into existence, man was accidentally assembled.Similarly, the evidence that God designed the earth-sun system far outweighs any possibility that it all just that it all just happened to come together by mere chance. We will now consider a few features of the earth-sun system which appears to be specifically and very carefully designed for the unique purpose of supporting life?The earth is positioned at just the right distance from the Sun so that we receive exactly the proper amount of heat to support life. The other planets of our solar system are either too close to the sun (too hot) or else too far (too cold) to sustain life.Any appreciable change in the rate of rotation of the earth would make life impossible. For example, if the earth were to rotate at 1/10th its present rate, all plant life would either be burned to a crisp during the day or frozen at night.Temperature variations are kept within reasonable limits due to the nearly circular orbit of the earth around the Sun.Temperature extremes are further moderated by the water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that produce a greenhouse effect.The moon revolves around the earth at a distance of about 240,000 miles causing harmless tides on the earth. If the moon were located 1/5th of this distance away, the continents would be completely submerged twice a day…considering the moon if moving away at 1.6 inches per year, 2 billion years ago, it would have been 1/5th closer and life would have been impossible.The thickness of the earth’s crust and the depth of the oceans appear to be carefully designed. Increases in thickness or depth of only a few feet would so drastically alter the absorption of free oxygen and carbon dioxide that plant and animal life could not exist.The earth’s axis is tilted 23 1/2% degrees from the perpendicular to the plane of its orbit. This tilting, combined with the earth’s revolution around the sun, causes our seasons, which are absolutely essential for the raising of food supplies… again what controls this tilt… right, the moon.The earth’s atmosphere (ozone layer) serves as a protective shield from lethal solar ultraviolet radiation, which would otherwise destroy all life.The Earth’s atmosphere also serves to protect the earth from approximately 20 million meteors that enter it each day at speeds of about 30 miles per second! Without this crucial protection the danger to life would be immense.The earth is the perfect physical size and mass to support life, affording a careful balance between gravitational forces (essential for holding water and an atmosphere) and atmospheric pressure.The two primary constituents of the earths’ atmosphere are nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (20%). This delicate and critical ratio is essential to all life-formsThe earth’s magnetic field provides important protection from harmful cosmic radiation.The earth is uniquely blessed with a bountiful supply of water, which is the key substance of life due to its remarkable and essential physical properties.Many other examples of this type could be cited that would also support the idea that the earth was created and carefully designed for a purpose. Such numerous perfect and complex combinations of interrelated conditions and factors essential to delicate life-forms unequivocally point to intelligent purposeful design. To believe that such an intricately planned and carefully balanced life support system is the result of mere chance is absolutely senseless. Surely, the honest and objective observer has no other recourse than to conclude that the earth-sun system has been carefully and intelligently designed by God for man. As it is written: “The heaven, even the heavens, are the Lord’s: but the earth hath he given to the children of men” (Ps. 115:16)Astronomy is the science of the stars, planets, and all other heavenly bodies beyond the Earth’s atmosphere. Astronomers study the composition, motion, relative position, size, and other properties of these heavenly bodies Given the immensity of the known universe, the seemingly countless mysteries, and the fantastic wonders (e.g. black holes, pulsars, nebula, supernovae) the astronomers task seems a daunting one. Indeed, one of the most enduring questions of all time remains yet unanswered, “are we alone?”But we are going to consider more of the interesting facts of Earth. While we may feel motionless on Earth, we are actually on such a wild ride that it is difficult to comprehend. The Earth is rotating on its axis at a speed of over 1,000 miles an hour at the equator. In addition, the Earth is revolving around the Sun at about 67,000 mph. In fact, during the course of an average human’s life span, the Earth will complete 70 trips around the Sun, traveling some 41 billion miles! Furthermore, we are moving around the nucleus of the Milky Way Galaxy at about 500,000 mph, and our galaxy itself is speeding along at an astounding 1.1 million mph!In our solar system, the Sun makes up 98% of the mass. It is about 27 million degrees Fahrenheit at the core with a pressure that is 250 billion times the air pressure on Earth. Solar flares can extend out a length greater than 10 Earths. Every second 700 million tons of hydrogen is converted into helium, and in the process 5 million tons of pure energy is released. The Sun produces an icredible 3.8 million billion billion watts, which is equivalent to 5.18X10 to the 23rd power. Our Sun is only 865,000 miles in diameter. By comparison, Aldebaran is a giant star that is 31,140,000 miles in diameter and Antares is an example of a supergiant star that is 300 million miles in diameter!What is the American definition of Apology? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is the Greek definition as used in 1 Peter 3:15 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is the foundation of Science? _________________________________________________What is Scientific method? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is the one word definition of Science ? __________________________________________Describe the Scientific method ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is a Hypothesis ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Describe Scientific Theory ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What are scientific Laws ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What does scientific theory explain? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Give a simple explanation of the  Anthropic principle ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is the 1st law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is the 2nd law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Explain Uniformitarianism ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Complete the following statement; 1.     The earth is positioned at just the right distance from the Sun ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Any appreciable change in the rate of rotation of the earth would make life impossible Why ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________How are Temperature variations kept within reasonable limits ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The thickness of the earth’s crust and the depth of the oceans appear to be carefully designed what would be the result if this were changed by only a few feet? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Define Astronomy _______________________________________________________________