Remember this as we continue through the course; true science is facts that have been substantiated by observation, or reproduction with corresponding results to that being tested.
The following is a list of the principles and laws we must follow to establish our evidences for a young earth.
Science = knowledge
Scientific method – Method of research with defined steps that include experiments and careful observation. And, –Tests the hypothesis
Hypothesis – suggested explanation for an event, which can be tested.
Scientific Theory= A scientific theory is a generally accepted, thoroughly tested and confirmed explanation for a set of observations or phenomena.
Laws = concise descriptions of parts of the world that are agreeable to formulaic or mathematical description.
Again, first scientific theory to explain something that exists, Scientific method, is the way we test the theory that leads to Hypotheses, or tentative explanations and when all testing confirms the theory you have becomes scientific law… 2 + 2 = 4 is a mathematical fact, and a scientific fact and therefore a “law”.
Anthropic principle: The earth was designed for biological life, Scientists have discovered that the most fundamental characteristics of our earth and cosmos are so finely tuned that if just one of them were even slightly different, life as we know it couldn’t exist, and it agrees with the Bible which states that God formed the earth to be inhabited (Isaiah 45:18).
1st law of Thermal dynamics: The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed.
2nd law of Thermal dynamics says, in simple terms, entropy (Entropy is the general trend of the universe toward death and disorder…) always increases. This principle explains, for example, why you can’t unscramble an egg. In other words, it is dying…
Uniformitarianism is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe.
So True Science comes within all these Boundaries…. Apologetics is a defense that God exists proven by scientific principles and laws:
The earth is finely tuned, yet running down, and there is only a certain amount of energy that exists even though it may be changed from one for to another, for instance when gas is burned it is turned into carbon dioxide, Creation fulfills these laws and principles according to correct scientific procedure.
Finally, we find modern science confirms scripture.
There are several areas to compare when we look at our earth and cosmos. Today we will take a look at space dust, and also how the moon which affects our gravity, ocean tides, and the tilt of the Earth on its axis.
A continued presentation of the evidence that refutes the idea of a long age earth and cosmos.
Gravity, Space Dust, Mud, and the Moon
There are several things science knows and admits to, things we can measure, such as decreasing gravity, the annual amount of “Space Dust” that falls on the earth every year.
There are several things science knows and admits to, things we can measure, such as decreasing gravity, and the annual amount of “Space Dust” that falls on the earth every year.
Satellite observations suggest that 100-300 metric tons of cosmic dust enter the atmosphere each day.
The Earth weighs 1.317 × 10^25 lbs or 13,170,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 pounds
300 x 2,000 (the weight of a ton) = 600,000 X 365 = 219,000,000 per year X 1,000,000 years = 219,000,000,000.000
If the earth is a million years old, and they are now talking billions of years, then ¼ of the earth is accumulated space dust. Hmmmm
That means if it is 3 ½ billion years old as they are now saying, than that would be 776,000,000,000.000,000,000 pounds of space dust that accounts for the current weight of the earth. That means the earth was a very small planet until that space dust started to fall…
Long before man ever set foot on the moon, some scientists had argued that there did not appear to be enough cosmic dust in the surface layers of the earth to account for the supposed billions of years of earth’s history. However, proponents of “long ages” argued that extensive wind and water erosion had masked the assumed presence. It was felt that the missing cosmic dust would turn up somewhere, perhaps in the deep sediment layers of the oceans. So far it has not.
So, when the astronauts went to the moon, they were rightfully worried they would sink quite a ways into the “space dust” as it collects as much as the earth. I was watching this first moon landing and it was a major concern, literally everyone holding their breath while the luner landed out of fear it would sink hundreds of feet into the surface… it didn’t happen, so in the final anaylsis there isn’t enough space dust on either the moon or the earth to support the theory of a long earth/ universe theory.
Speaking of the Moon
Another aspect of the Moon is that it is moving away from the Earth, Scientists calculate at 1.6 inches per year, however, if we go back 2 million years, the moon would have been 50,000 miles closer than it is now.
Consider this, the Moon is approximately 234,000 to 239,000 miles away from the Earth, and controls the sea currents/ waves, affects the gravity, and the tilt of the Earth, and that 2 million years ago it would have been 20% closer to the earth, the Earth would have been in constant turmoil, with tidal wave as the normal day to day weather condition.
The Magnetic Field
The strength of the earth’s magnetic field has been measured for well over a century. This provides scientists with exceptionally good records. In an important recent study, Thomas G. Barnes has shown that the strength of the earth’s magnetic field is decaying exponentially at a rate corresponding to a half-life of 1,400 years. That is to say, 1,400 years ago the magnetic field of the earth was twice as strong as it is now. If we extrapolate back as far as 10,000 years, we find that the earth would have had a magnetic field as strong as that of a magnetic star! This is, of course, highly improbable, if not impossible. Thus, based on the present decay rate of the earth’s magnetic field, 10,000 years appears to be an upper limit for the age of the earth.
Keep in mind that any objections to this conclusion must be based on rejection of the same uniformitarian assumption that evolutionist utilize to derive a great age for the earth. In defense of their long-age chronology, evolutionists have proposed a reversal hypothesis. They suggest that the earth’s magnetic field has remained relatively stable throughout geologic time, except for certain intervals in which it went through a reversal, dying down to zero and rising up again with the reverse polarity. The last such reversal is alleged to have occurred about 700,000 years ago.
Unfortunately for evolutionary scientists, the reversal hypothesis has absolutely no valid scientific theoretical basis. Furthermore, rock magnetization cannot be used to support these so-called reversals because there is a self-reversal process known to exist in rocks, completely independent of the earth’s magnetic field.
Finally, it is believed that the earth’s magnetic field is due to circulating electric currents in its core. If we extrapolate backward about 20,000 years, we find that the estimated heat produced by the currents would have melted the earth. Clearly, the testimony of the earths’ magnetic field is strongly in favor of a relatively young earth, not an ancient one.
The Mississippi River Delta
The Mississippi River Delta offers additional evidence to support the concept of a relatively young earth. Approximately 300 million cubic yards of sediment are deposited into the Gulf of Mexico by the Mississippi river each year. By carefully studying the volume and rate of accumulation of the Mississippi River Delta and then dividing the weight of the sediments deposited annually into the total weight of the delta, it can be determined that the age of the delta is about 4,000 years old
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Petroleum and natural gas are contained at high pressures in underground reservoirs by relatively impermeable (resistant) cap rock. In many cases, the pressures are extremely high. Calculations based on the measured permeability of the cap rock reveal that the oil and gas pressures could not be maintained for much longer than 10,000 years in many instances. Thus, the assumption that such fossil-fuel deposits have been confined for millions of years, having not leaked out through their cap rack, becomes laughable.
Furthermore, recent experiments have demonstrated conclusively that the conversion of marine and vegetable matter into oil and gas can be achieved in a surprisingly short time. For example, plant-derived material has been converted into a good grade of petroleum in as little as twenty minutes under the proper temperature and pressure conditions. Wood and other cellulosic material have also been converted into coal or coal-like substances in just a few hours. These experiments prove that the formation of coal, oil, and gas did not necessarily require millions of years to form as uniformitarian geologists have assumed and taught.
The presence of polystrate fossils in coal beds which indicate rapid formation. Also, the type of plants involved and the texture of these deposits testify of turbulent waters, not a stagnant swamp.
Evolutionists propose that coal was formed millions of years before man evolved. However, human skeletons and artifacts, such as intricately structured gold chains, have been found in coal deposits. In Genesis 4 we learn that metalworking was already highly developed; Tubalcain was an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron. In Genesis 7 and 8, the Deluge later buried the antediluvian civilizations in the sedimentary layers of the earth’s crust.
The Rotation of the Earth
The rotation of the earth is gradually slowing due to the gravitational drag forces of the sun, moon, and other factors. If the earth is billions of years old, as uniformitarian geologists insist, and it has been slowing down uniformly, then its present rotation should be zero!
Furthermore, if we extrapolate (to infer (values of a variable in an unobserved interval) from values within an already observed interval) backward for several billion years, the centrifugal force would have been so great that the continents would have been sent to the equatorial regions and the overall shape of the earth would have been more like a flat pancake. But, as is commonly known, the shape of the earth is spherical; its continents are not confined to the equatorial regions, and it continues to rotate on its axis at approximately 1,000 mph at the equator. The obvious conclusion is that the earth is not billions of years old.
Quiz for Lesson 3
- What is the American definition of Apology? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the Greek definition as used in 1 Peter 3:15 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the foundation of Science? _________________________________________________
- What is Scientific method? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the one word definition of Science ? __________________________________________
- Describe the Scientific method ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is a Hypothesis ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Describe Scientific Theory ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What are scientific Laws ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What does scientific theory explain? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Give a simple explanation of the Anthropic principle ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the 1st law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the 2nd law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Explain Uniformitarianism ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Name two of the fundamental Characteristics of the earth that are “winding down” or decreasing which refute the possibility of an old earth an ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Permeability of the cap rock reveal that the oil and gas pressures could not be maintained for much longer than _______________________________________________________________
- The rotation of the earth is gradually slowing due to: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Recent experiments have demonstrated conclusively that the conversion of marine and vegetable matter into oil and gas can be achieved in a surprisingly short time give an example of this: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is the distance of the Moon from the Earth? ____________________________________
- The Moon is moving away from the Earth, Scientists calculate the rate to be: ______________________________________________________________________________
- The Mississippi River Delta offers additional evidence to support the concept of a relatively young earth, explain: _____________________________________________________________
- Thomas G. Barnes has shown that the strength of the earth’s magnetic field is decaying exponentially at a rate corresponding to: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________