Evolution: Fact or Fiction?
Our public schools and universities teach that evolution is the only scientific explanation for the origin of life on earth. The government will not permit creation to be taught in the public schools and universities as an alternative explanation for the origin of life. A rare exception occurred in 1984 when the National Honor Society of Lubbock High School decided to study both sides of the issue. The members of the Honor Society invited Dr. Robert Baker, a nationally known biologist from Texas Tech University, to present the case for evolution. They invited Ted Stewart to present scientific arguments against evolution and for creation. Ted was not permitted to use the Bible in the debate. This lesson presents Ted’s critique of Dr. Baker’s case for evolution, plus addition evidence against evolution that Ted had learn in the years since the debate. Dr. Baker did not attempt to answer any of the arguments against evolution, not the arguments for creation. The main arguments for creation appear in the next lesson.
To enable the students to refute the scientific arguments for evolution and to turn the scientific evidence into arguments for Creation.
LESSON OBJECTIVE: You will…
- Investigate the evidences presented by scientists in favor of Spontaneous Generation and determine it is myth rather than scientific truth.
- Examine the argument on Homology and conclude that similarity of structure indicates a common Divine Designer, not common ancestors.
- Evaluate mutations and determine that they lead to inferior degradation or death, not superior evolution.
- Analyze the fossil record and see that it supports creation, not evolution.
- Realize that belief in atheistic evolution is the sin of idolatry.
- Learn how to turn arguments for evolution into arguments for Creation.
INTRODUCTORY WORDS ABOUT EVOLUTION
- Practical Biology has made great advances in revealing the complex chemical and physical processes that permit plants, animals, bacteria, and viruses to function.
- Theoretical Biology presents Evolution as the origin and method by which these complex living organisms came into existence.
- Where You Came from Determines Who You Are, Why You Are Here, and Where You Are Going.
- Are you an evolutionary accident or created in God’s image?
- If you are a son of a chimp, you can live by the law of the jungle.
- If you are a child of God, you were created in the image of God and have the privilege and duty to live by the law of God!
- Did you evolve without purpose or meaning, or were you created with a divine purpose and a heavenly goal?
- Two Kinds of Evolution
- Micro-Evolution (small evolution) causes variable colors, shapes, and sizes of the same species; it is observed in nature and is accepted as scientific fact by Evolutionists and Creationists.
- Macro-Evolution (Big Evolution) is theoretical, not factual, and proposes that non-living material accidentally evolved into plant and animal life and that inferior plant and animal life accidentally evolved into higher forms of life.
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION: TRUTH OR MYTH?
- Spontaneous Generation: The Basic Premise on Which Evolution Stands
Evolution is based on the premise that life suddenly emerged from non-living material.
- Spontaneous Generation Has Never Been Observed
- Scientists of the late 19th century believed that maggots were spontaneously generated from the deterioration of garbage.
- Louis Pasteur demonstrated in the laboratory that garbage did not produce maggots when protected under a glass covering.
- Unprotected garbage attracted flies that laid their eggs on the garbage and later hatched into maggots, which are fly-larvae.
- He concluded that spontaneous generation is unscientific and that life always comes from previous life, not from non-life.
- Yet, modern evolutions are still advocating the same unscientific view of spontaneous generation that Pasteur refuted.
- The Miller and Urey Experiment
Miller and Urey, artificially created a few amino acids and other DNA components as well as other organic substances, claiming they created life in the test tube.[i]
- These organic substances are not living matter, but only some of the components that make up life.
- Even these lifeless amino acids were produced not naturally, as spontaneous generation requires, but in the laboratory under closed conditions.
- The process required that water be inserted at one point of the experiment and that the resulting substances be protected from water later in the process
- In an open environment, these organic substances would have been destroyed by rain, wind, etc. as rapidly as they were formed.
- Miller and Urey also utilized electric shocks to form these substances, on the basis that lightning provides the same shock in nature.
- The Miller and Urey experiment showed that intelligent man can produce a few of the components that make up life in a closed atmosphere. They did not demonstrate how nature could produce amino acids in an open atmosphere.
- The Complicate Process by Which Non-living Material Could Evolve into Living Plants and Creatures
- In order to form by chance a simple plant, the protons and neutrons in the nuclei of non-living substances would have to be miraculously replaced with a DNA molecule of a plant.
- Other non-living matter would need to be miraculously combined and their nucei replaced with different DNA so as to produce bacteria, fungi, and other forms of animal life.
- Plants would have to undergo dramatic changes in the DNA.
- Sea Life must undergo complex DNA changes to become land creatures.
HOMOLOGY: A COMMON ANCESTOR OR A COMMON DESIGNER?
- Biologists Claim: Similar Structure in Different Animals Proves Evolution
- Similarity of Humans to Monkeys, Chimps, and Apes Proves Evolution
- Modern biologists now believe “remarkable biochemical similarities of chimpanzee and human proteins” testify to their “incredibly close biological relationship.”[ii]
- Since a chimpanzee is the closest animal in similarity to man, we would expect it to have some of the same proteins that humans have
- The Evolution of a Chimp Into A Human Violates Scientific Observation
- “Species” is defined by biologists as having “potential in nature to interbreed and produce fertile offspring and possess similar inherited characteristics.”
- Different Species of the same genus sometimes can interbreed, but they do not produce fertile offspring.
- The horse and donkey, different Species of the same Genus, can interbreed, but their offspring is a mule, that is infertile and cannot reproduce.
- In no case can Species of different Genera interbreed and produce a new Genus or a new species.
- The Chimpanzee is from the Genus called Pan and from the species called Troglodytes, whereas the Orangutan is from the Genus called Pongo and the species called Pygmaeus, and man is the species Homo Sapiens of the Genus Homo.
- No one has ever observed a chimp give birth to a superior species of its own Genus (Pan), much less a species of a superior Genus (Homo). If it ever occurs, it will be miraculous, contrary to scientific observation.
- The Evolution of A Chimpanzee into A Human Violates the Scientific Law of Cell Reproduction
- Law of Reproduction: “Cells of each species possess a characteristic number of chromosomes: human cells have 46, cotton plants 52, turkeys 82, and some ferns 1,000. During normal cell division, the two daughter cells must receive the same number of chromosomes.”[iii]
- Since two daughter cells must have the same number of chromosomes in order to reproduce, reproduction cannot occur if either of the parents has a different number of chromosomes.
- Chimpanzees have 48 Chromosomes in their DNA.[iv]
- Humans have 46 Chromosomes with a different number and order of the bands of genes, as well as different genes on each band of each chromosome.
- A Chimp of 48 chromosomes cannot produce a fertile offspring of 46 chromosomes because it would violate the scientific Law of Cell Reproduction.
- Chimpanzees cannot interbreed with humans and produce any offspring; how much less could two chimps or a chimp and another animal of the same genus produce a human being.
- Intelligent scientists cannot cause a chimp to produce a superior species, much less a man.
- Since a chimp’s producing a superior species has never been observed and violates the scientific law of cell reproduction, it is anti-scientific.
- The Biblical View of the Fixity of the Species is More Scientific Than Evolution
- Genesis 1:21,24 says “God created…every living and moving thing…according to their kinds.”
- The Bible teaches the fixity of the species or kind, as observed by scientists and in conformity with the law of cell reproduction.
- The Biblical law of fixity of species conforms to scientific law, whereas evolution contradicts it.
- Homology Indicates A Common Designer, Not a Common Ancestry
MUTATIONS: EVOLUTION OR DEGRADATION?
- Laboratory Experiments Show That Radiation Can Modify (Cause Mutations) In the Molecular Structure Of DNA
- 95% of mutations are fatal or seriously injure the creature so that it is inferior, not superior.
- Mutations might cause a different variation of the same species, but in no case have mutations been observed to produce a new species.
- Scientist’ Accomplishments with Modifications or Repair of the DNA
- Scientists have learned how to repair defective genes, but they have been unable to modify the DNA to create a superior species.
- Scientists have developed better quality plants and animals by cross breeding but have never been able to produce a new species of animal or plant.
- Scientists’ Failures in Experimenting with DNA
- Scientists have continually experimented with radiation treatments to modify the DNA to produce a new species, but have never succeeded.
- Scientists have experimented with modifications of DNA of fruit flies by inserting multiple copies of an eye gene into fruit-fly embryos.[v]
- 14 eyes appeared on the fruit fly’s wings, legs, and antennae.
- Scientists produced a Frankenstein fruit fly who is grossly inferior to a normal fly.[vi]
THE FOSSIL RECORD: EVOLUTION OR CREATION?
- Scientists Claim: The Fossil Record Proves Evolution
- Many Biology text books leave the impression that only lower forms of life appear in the earliest strata of earth and that the higher forms of life gradually appear in successive strata in later ages of earth’s history.
- The evidence actually shows both simple and advance animals suddenly appeared in the Cambrian Age, the first period when life is found.
- The famous evolutionist, G.G. Simpson, writes, “All these phyla…begin in the Cambrian…. There is little logical order in time of appearance. The Arthropoda appear in the record as early as undoubted Protozoa, although by general consensus the Protozoa are the most primitive phylum and the Arthropoda the most advances.”[vii]
- The Encyclopedia Britannica calls this phenomenon “an evolutionary explosion; Yet, it claims it “cannot be” and that life must have existed in Pre-Cambrian Ages, although no evidence of life appeared in earlier ages.[viii]
- C. Simpson admits that the absence of Pre-Cambrian fossils is the “major mystery of the history of life.”[ix]
- Advance and simple life existing side by side in the earliest age of earth confirms the Biblical description of creation, but contradicts evolution.
- The Evolutionary Picture Presented by Scientists Would Be Miraculous if True
(Notice the chart of evolution in the World Book Encyclopedia, 1970 edition).
- Life on earth begins with a reptile, who miraculously evolved from a fish, which is cold blooded, has scales, with fins, no lets, no jaw, and lives in water.
- Reptiles are: Cold blooded, have scales, 4 legs, and 6 bones in the lower jaw, live on land and have 18 more differences
- The reptile miraculously turned into a bird; birds are warm-blooded, with feathers, 2 wings and 2 legs, with a beak and 18 more differences.
- If this reptile’s legs evolved into wings, in the interim he could neither walk nor fly and would have died before he could ever evolve into a bird.
- The same reptile miraculously turned into a snake that has scales, but no legs and 18 other differences. In the process of losing his legs, the intermediate would have died before it produced a snake.
- This same amazing reptile produced another kind of reptile who miraculously turned into a mouse, which is a mammal, who miraculously evolved into a horse, who incredibly evolved into a monkey.
- Mammals are warm-blooded instead of cold-blooded, have fur or skin, give birth to the child out of birth track instead of hatching eggs, have 1 bone in the lower jaw (instead of 6) and have 18 more differences.
- Everyone of these miraculous creatures of evolution violated the definition of a species and contradicted the molecular law of Cell Reproduction that requires that the DNA of each animal have the same number of chromosomes of the parents.
- None of these asserted evolutionary changes have ever been observed, nor have they been scientifically produced in the laboratory.
- Missing Transitional Fossils Disprove Evolution and Confirms Creation
- If evolution is true there should be hundreds of examples of transitional fossils between phyla of insects, spine creatures, and worms, and even more transitional fossils between mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds.
- G. Simpson, admits, “Transitional types are not invariably lacking in the record. A multitude of them are known between species, many between genera, a few between classes, but none is true, between phyla.[x]
- Sir Fred Hoyle, who won the Nobel Prize in Astronomy, says, “The evolutionary record leaks like a sieve.”[xi]
- If man descended from a chimp there should be thousands of fossils of half-chimp/ half-humans, but there are none.
- The Absence of Living Intermediate Animals Disproves Evolution
- If modern man evolved from a Chimp the intermediate half-chimpanzee/half-human would be superior in intellectual power to modern chimps, and thus millions of them should still be living in our modern world.
- According to the Darwin’s theory of the Survival of the Fittest, these transitional beings should have survived better than the chimp. Yet, not one of them survived. Why is the Chimp present in abundant numbers, but his superior evolutionary product is nowhere to be seen?
- The Fossil Record Indicates Creation and Fixity of Species, Not Evolution
OUTDATED ARGUMENTS STILL USED BY SOME BILOGISTS
- Embryology: Scientists Claim the Human Embryo Proves Past Evolution
- Scientists once claimed that the embryo of a human passes through states of its evolutionary past from fish, to animal, to human.
- A human embryo first appears with a tail like that of a fish, then loses its tail and prduces legs, supposedly demonstrating its past evolutionary history.
- Study of the DNA shows that the design of a human is encoded so that it embryo will gradually develop into a full grown human being.
- The DNA in a human has no similarity whatsoever to the DNA in a fish.
- Informed scientists no longer use this argument, but many freshman biology textbooks still teach that embryology is proof of evolution.
- Vestigial Organs: No Proof of Evolution (Organs for which no useful function has been found)
- 1960 biology textbooks listed 200 vestigial structures of the human body, including the thyroid and pituitary glands, all as evidence of evolution.
- By 1990 modern biology found useful functions for all 200.[xii]
- Natural Selection and Survival of the Fittest: Does not Create A New Species.
- Natural selection produces micro-evolution.
- Flowers can change colors but not into different plants.
- Animals can change shapes and colors, but their species remains unchanged.
- Survival of the Fittest also produces only micro-evolution; not macro-evolution.
- Mutations can cause a plant to become sturdier, but not to turn into a different species of plant.
- Moths of a certain color survive better than other moths because of environment, but don’t produce a different species.
- Animals can become stronger and prettier based on survival of the fittest, but do not produce different species.
- New discover nullifies Darwin’s main argument about the Giraffe.
- Darwin claimed that Giraffes suffered successive famines and that only the ones with long necks survived.
- Scientists have discovered that tiny blood pumps cover the entire lenth of the Giraffe’s neck. Without these pumps the heart could not pump the blood to the head and the Giraffe would die.
- Thus, the DNA would have to be altered to add these blood pumps to the Giraffe’s growing neck to circulate the blood all the way to the Giraffe’s head and back to the heart.
- No natural could rewrite DNA to include these blood pumps; therefore Giraffes have always had those blood pumps.
- Natural selection produces micro-evolution.
EVOLUTION: THE SIN OF IDOLATRY!
- Man’s Homage to Mother Earth and Animals as His Maker is Idolatry.
- Romans 1: 21 – 25 says that the “wise” (evolutionistic scientists and philosophers), “became fools” when they rejected God as Creator and worshiped animals as their makers.
- Men who believe all life evolved naturally from the dust of the earth worship Mother Earth as their creator.
- Men who believe reptiles evolved into chimps foolishly give credit to repitles and chimps as their father and maker.
- “Where is the wise man? Where is the scholar? Where is the philosopher of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?” (1 Corinthians 1:20).
- The Gospel of Christ Calls Men Out of Idolatry (Evolution), (Acts 14: 8 – 20).
The scientific evidence contradicts evolution. Only an omnipotent, omniscient creator can satisfy the scientific evidence.
SELF EXAM FOR LESSON THREE
- There are two kinds of evolution. List these and give a brief definition of each.
- Where you came from determines what three important issues of life?
- Define Spontaneous Generation and tell how it relates to evolution. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What scientist disproved spontaneous generation in the laboratory? What does this say about macro-evolution? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What two scientists claimed to have created life in the laboratory? What did they actually produce?
- What are two claims made by biologists to try to substantiate evolution and what is the argument called?
- Claim one: _______________________________________________________________
- Claim two: _______________________________________________________________
- The evolution of a chimpanzee into a human violates what scientific law? ________________________________________________________________________
- How do the definitions of “Species” and Genus” contradict the theory of man’s evolving from a chimpanzee? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What does Genesis 1:21, 24 teach that disputes the theory of evolution? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- Homology indicates a common ___________________, Not a Common ____________________
- What are 3 arguments against the idea that mutations in the DNA have caused evolution of higher forms of life?
- What fossils appear in the Cambrian Age, where life is first found, that disproves evolution? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What kind of fossils are missing in the layers of the earth that indicates creation instead of evolution? _____________________________________________________________________
- What non-existent fossils should exist by the millions if a chimp turned into a human? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- List and briefly explain three outdated arguments still used by some biologists.
- Evolution is really the sin of _______________________________________________________
[i] L. Wysong, The Creation-Evolution Controversy, pp. 220-21
[ii] Wessels & Hopson, Biology (Random House, 1988, pp.1223 ff.)
[iv] Internet site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/07/3/l_073_47.html
[v] Time, April 3, 1995, p.61.
[vi] with all the advances in Science, mutations (DNA changes) still result in inferior life forms http://www.harunyahya.com/en/Books/973/the-errors-the-american-national/chapter/3216
in 2017 the New Yorker published an article about two modern day scientist experimenting with white-footed mice so they would stop the spread of a disease… not much advancement in all these years. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/01/02/rewriting-the-code-of-life
[vii] G.C. Simpson, The Meaning of Evolution, 1949, p. 3,1.
[viii] 1956 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, in its article on “Paleontology.”
[ix] G.C. Simpson, op.cit., p. 18.
[x] Ibid.,p. 233.
[xi] Fred Hoyle, Evolution From Space, p77.
[xii] Jerry Bergman and George Howe, “Vestigial Organs Are Fully Functional” (Terre Haute, Indiana: Creation Research Society Books, 1990)