This lesson contains remarkable historical and archaeological synchronism between Egyptian history and Bible history from Sinai to Solomon. This amazing synchronism occurs only when Egyptian history and the archeological ages are re-dated 3 centuries later on the B.C. calendar.
To compare and match Bible history from Sinai to Solomon in both Egyptian history and archaeology of Palestine.
LESSON OBJECTIVES: You will:
- Investigate evidence concerning the fall of Jericho, Hazor, and other Canaanite cities as it relates to Egyptian history.
- View evidence from ancient documents, letters written by Canaanite rulers to Egypt and archaeological evidence which substantiate biblical history.
LINKING BIBLICAL DATES TO DYNASTIES 12 THROUGH 19
- Four Astronomical Anchor Dates Based on a Three-century Revision of Egyptian Chronology
- 12th Dynasty: Sesostris III’s 7th year fixed at 1535 B.C.
- 18th Dynasty: Amenhotep I’s 9th year fixed at 1183 B.C.
- 18th Dynasty: Thutmose III’s 23rd year fixed at 1123 B.C.
- 19th Dynasty: Rameses II’s 52nd year fixed at 854 B.C.
- These 4 Anchor Dates Enabled Ted to Re-date the Chronology of Egypt’s Dynasties 12 Through 19 to Fit Bible History. This complete reconstructed chronology can be seen in Table 20-A in your manual.
LINKING BIBLICAL DATES TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AGES
- The Dates of the Archaeological Ages Are Determined by Links to the “Astronomical” Dates of the Egyptian Dynasties [i]
- Table 20-B shows the new dates of the archaeological ages when the new Biblical and astronomical dates of Egyptian history are applied.
- The New Dating of Egypt’s Dynasties and the Archaeological Ages Results in Synchronism with Biblical History
THE FALL OF JERICHO IN THE 1ST HALF OF MIDDLE BRONZE IIB
- The 1406 B.C. fall of Jericho occurred in the 36th year of the 13th Dynasty, in the first quarter of the Middle Bronze IIB Age.
- All scholars agree that Jericho was destroyed in the Middle Bronze IIB Age
- Kenyon dates Jericho’s fall at the end of the age,[ii] whereas some Israelis date its fall earlier in the Middle Bronze IIB Age.[iii]
EVIDENCE FOR MIDDLE BRONZE IIB JERICHO IN JOSHUA’S TIME
- Archaeologist Bryant Wood examined Kathleen Kenyon’s data of the excavation of Jericho and found amazing links to the Bible story of Jericho’s fall.[iv]
- Joshua 2:15 – Rahab the Harlot lived in a house built into Jericho’s outside wall. Excavation shows houses built into Jericho’s MBIIB walls.[v]
- Joshua 3:13-15 – Jericho was destroyed at harvest time when the banks of the Jordan were overflowing. Underground, sealed store bins, full of grain were found, proving Jericho was overthrown rapidly at harvest time.[vi]
- Joshua 3:15-17 – The Jordan River suddenly dried up and stopped flowing upstream at a town called Adam (Adyma). Earthquakes at Adyma have caused land slides that stopped the Jordan”s flow 4 different times in recorded history.[vii] God likely used an earthquake to stop the flow in Joshua’ time.
- Joshua 6:15-20 – Jericho’s walls collapsed. Excavation shows an earthquake demolished the walls and also many houses.[viii] The miracle was the timing of the earthquake.
- Joshua 6:24 – Israel burned the entire city. Excavation revealed a 3-foot layer of burned material all over the city at the MBIIB level.[ix]
- Charcoal taken from Jericho’s fallen walls was carbon-14 dated originally at 1130 B.C., with a calibrated date of 1410 B.C. + or – 40 years, which Bryant presented as proof of the Biblical date for Jericho’s fall.[x]
- Later, the British Museum discovered an error and corrected the original carbon-14 date to 1350 B.C., calibrating it to 1550 B.C. + or – 110 years.[xi]
- Carbon-14 dates calibrated by tree rings contradict the “astronomical dates” of Egyptian history by about 3 centuries.
- When scientists learn that Egyptian history is misdated by 3 centuries, they will accept only uncalibrated carbon-14 dates as valid.
- The uncalibrated date of 1350 B.C. has a range of + or – 110 years, and thus includes the 1406 B.C. date for Jericho’s fall.
EVIDENCE FOR THE FALL OF HAZOR AND OTHER CANAANITE CITIES
- Joshua 11:11-12: Hazor was the only city in northern Israel that Joshua burned. Kenyon reported that Hazor was “covered with a thick layer of burning” contemporary with Jericho’s fall.[xii]
- Amihai Mazar admits that “a significant number of Middle Bronze cities were destroyed” before the Middle Bronze Age ended.[xiii]
- Archaeological excavation shows that the following Canaanite cities (Jericho, Gibeon, Hebron, Arad, Debir, Lachish, Hazor and Bethel) existed at the beginning of Middle Bronze IIB, but were destroyed before it ended.[xiv]
EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE GIANTS AND FORTIFIED CITIES IN CANAAN
- Two years after the Exodus (1444 B.C.), Israelite spies found in Canaan giants called the “Sons of Anak” living in high-walled, fortified cities (Numbers 13:21-33).
- Lesson 16 identified Sesostris III and Amenemhet III as the Pharaohs who enslaved Israel and cursed the rulers of 3 cities of “Anak” in Canaan. Thus, the sons of Anak already existed in Canaan during the Middle Bronze IIA Age before Israel entered Canaan in the Middle Bronze IIB Age.
- Pritchard, who cites these curses, admits that they may relate “to the Anaqim ‘giants’ who were in . . . Canaan at the time of the conquest in Deuteronomy 2:10.”[xv]
- Joshua 13:13 says Caleb drove out the 3 Anakites in Hebron: Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. The first Hyksos king of the 15th dynasty was named Sheshi, indicating he was either the giant’s descendant or was named in his memory.[xvi]
- Mazar says, “the art of fortification reached a level of unparalleled sophistication. . . . with the city wall high above the surrounding area” during the MBIIB Age.[xvii]
EVIDENCE OF THE HYKSOS IN THE PERIOD OF THE JUDGES
- Two Hyksos dynasties (15 th and 16 th) ruled Northern Egypt for c. 100 years.[xviii] Ted’s new chronology dates them from 1317 to 1217 B.C.
- The Hyksos established military bases in Palestine during and after they ruled Egypt.[xix] They are not mentioned by name in the book of Judges. Why?
- Hyksos means “foreign rulers” in Egypt’s language. Hatshepsut, an Egyptian queen, called the Hyksos “Amu.”[xx] Amu fits the name of Amulek or Amalek, one of Israel’s enemies in Canaan.[xxi]
- The Bible says Amalek inhabited southern Canaan and NW Arabia from Abraham to David[xxii] (Exodus17:8ff).
- The Septuagint of Genesis 45:10 translates “Goshen” as “Gesen of Arabia,” because the Hyksos came from Arabia and built their capital of Avaris in Goshen.
- When the Hyksos were expelled from Egypt, some of them returned to southern Palestine and resided in the city of Sharuhen.[xxiii] Amalek and Hyksos inhabited the same areas – likely the same people.
- Numbers 24:20 says that Amalek was the “first of the nations” but would come to an end, but Amalek was not the first nation to exist chronologically but in military power when Israel was about to enter Canaan in 1406 B.C. Amalek (Hyksos) later conquered Egypt in my new date of 1317 B.C.
- Many ancient Arab writers describe Amalek’s conquest of Egypt in the same language as the Hyksos’ conquest of Egypt was described.[xxiv]
- Amalek (Hyksos) oppressed Israel often in the period of the Judges (Judges 3:13; 5:14; Judges 6-7; 1 Samuel 14-15).
- Exodus 17:14-16 predicted Amalek’s name would be blotted out. Amalek’s name disappears after the reign of David. The name, Hyksos, also disappeared from history after being expelled from Egypt. Both of their names were blotted out because they were the same people.
EGYPT’S 18TH DYNASTY AND ISRAEL FROM 1217 TO 1050 B.C.
- Ted’s revision of Egyptian history dates the 1st half of the 18th dynasty parallel to the last
- Period of the Judges From 1217 to 1050 B.C. Ahmose, the last king of the 17th dynasty drove out the Hyksos and became the first king of the 18th dynasty in 1217 B.C.
- The 18th dynasty expelled the Hyksos and for 60 years rebuilt Egypt instead of invading Canaan. Egypt is not mentioned in Judges from 1217-1157 B.C.
- Idrimi, king of Alalakh, was a contemporary with Ahmose. Scholars date Idrimi in 1519 B.C.; Ted dates him Biblically in 1197 B.C.
- In Ted’s Biblical date of 1123 B.C., a scribe of Thutmose III, another 18th dynasty king, wrote of his encounter with a Hapiru (a Hebrew) at Joppa.[xxvii]
- In the same year Thutmose III defeated a coalition of 330 city rulers of Syria and Palestine at the city of Megiddo in N. Israel.[xxviii]
- Why is Thutmose III’s conquest at Megiddo unmentioned in the Bible?
- Joshua 15-19 and Judges 2 lists 15 of Canaan’s most important cities, including Megiddo, that Canaanites repossessed after Joshua’s conquest.
- The Hebrews occupied the smaller towns and rural areas of Palestine during the period of the Judges. The book of Judges only recorded Israel’s history, it did not record Thutmose III’s conquest of Megiddo.
- An uncalibrated carbon-14 date of 1151 B.C. has been assigned to Thutmose III’s reign,[xxix] confirming Ted’s date of 1145 B.C. for the beginning of his reign.
- In the Biblical year of 1112 B.C., Amenhotep II, the son of Thutmose III, captured 3,600 Hapiru or Hebrews in Canaan, [xxx]confirming the continued Hebrew presence in Canaan during the last half of the period of the Judges.
SAUL AND DAVID IN THE AMARNA PERIOD OF CANAANITE HISTORY
- First and Second Samuel reports continual warfare between Israel and Philistia during the reigns of Saul and David from 1050 to 970 B.C.
- All of King Saul’s reign and part of David’s reign ran parallel with Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten).
- Canaanite kings requested military aid from Amenhotep III & IV to fight the Hapiru (the Hebrews). This correspondence is called The Amarna Letters.
- These Amarna Letters describe the same conditions that existed in Canaan during the reigns of Saul and David. Let us notice a few excerpts of these letters.
- Rib-Hadda, Ruler of Gubla (Gebal = Byblos), refers to the Hapiru (Hebrews) 50 times in 78 letters. He frequently criticized the ruler of the Amorites for making alliances with the Hapiru, and turning over Canaanite cities to the Hapiru. These letters confirm 1 Samuel 7:12-14 that says Samuel, Saul and David established peace alliances between Israel and the Amorites.
- Zimreddi, Ruler of Sidon – #144 – “All the cities that the king put in my charge have been joined to the Hapiru (Hebrews).”
- Abi-Milku, ruler of Tyre – #148 – “The king of Hasura [Hazor] has . . . aligned himself with the Hapiru. . . . He has taken the land over for the Hapiru.”
- Bayawa, ruler in Syria: #215 – “Should Yanhamu [Egyptian general] not be here within this year, all the lands are lost to the Hapiru [Hebrews].”
- Letter from Suwardata, mayor of Qiltu (close to Gath), Letter # 366 – “May the king my lord be informed that the Hapiru [singular] that rose up against the lands, the god, the king, my lord, gave to me, and I smote him.” The Hapiru (singular) that was killed is likely King Saul (1 Samuel 31).
- Habdi-Heba, King of Jerusalem wrote in Letter #286 – “That Habiru [singular = David] has plundered all the lands of the king. . . . If there are no archers, lost are the lands of the king, my lord.”
- Later, Habdi-Heba wrote – #288 – “Now the Hapiru have taken the very cities of the king. Not a single mayor remains to the king, my lord; all are lost.” 2 Samuel 5 & 8 say David conquered all of Canaan’s cities and made Jerusalem his capital.
- Letter #292 reads, “Consider the deed of Peya, the son of Gulatu, against Gazru [Gezer]. Gulatu is Goliath in English, the giant David killed in 1 Samuel 17.
- Scholars note the striking similarity of Akhenaten’s monotheism and psalms of praise, both similar to David’s monotheism and Psalms in the Bible.
- Many scholars claim David copied Akhenaten’s religion and writings. More likely, Akhenaten copied David’s religion and Psalms.
- Habdi-Heba’s letter states that Akhenaten admired the Hapiru King (David): “Why do you love the Hapiru, but hate the mayors [rulers of Canaan]” – #286.
- Akhenaten admired David as a poet, musician, and warrior, and did not send military assistance for the Canaanite kings against David.
- Akhenaten permitted David to conquer these Canaanite cities by refusing to send Egyptian troops.
DAVID, A CONTEMPORARY WITH KING AY OF THE 18TH DYNASTY.
- 1 Kings 11:14-19: In David’s reign Hadad, a prince of Edom, fled to Egypt for refuge as a boy. When Hadad grew older, Pharaoh gave him a wife, the sister of his own wife, Tahpenes.
- Ay, an 18th dynasty king, began reigning in 983 B.C., the 27th year of David. Ay’s wife was named Ty, [xxxi]the first syllable of Tahpenes, the Egyptian queen of Ay, supporting my identification of Ay as a contemporary of David.
- Horemheb, general under Ay, received certain Asiatics, whose towns had been destroyed. [xxxii] These Asiatics likely included Hadad and others when David conquered the surrounding countries.
HOREMHEB’S REIGN IN THE TIME OF SOLOMON
- A 19th dynasty monument lists the 59th year of Horemheb.[xxxiii]
- Ted’s chronology dates Horemheb’s 59-year reign from David’s 31st year in 979 B.C., throughout all of Solomon’s 40-year reign terminating in the 9th year of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, in 920 B.C.
- On this basis Horemheb was the Pharaoh who gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon (1 Kings 3:1). Horemheb just happens to be Egypt’s first king to marry his daughter to a foreign king. An alabaster vase excavated in Ugarit depicts “Sharelli” the daughter of Horemheb being married to an unknown Asiatic King.[xxxiv] Solomon is likely the Asiatic king and Sharelli is likely his Egyptian wife. Horemheb conquered an unnamed Canaanite city,[xxxv] likely Gezer, which 1 Kings 9:16 says Pharaoh gave to his daughter when she married Solomon.
- 2 Chronicles 8:11: Solomon built a palace for Pharaoh’s daughter outside the city gates and above Jerusalem. Located just outside and above modern Jerusalem is the beautiful garden tomb, which is identified by many as the tomb where Jesus was buried. It fits perfectly the location described in 2 Chronicles 8:11.
- David Rohl says 18th dynasty pottery, hieroglyphic texts, an offering table a limestone column capital with a design of palms, and a statuette of an Egyptian female have been found in the garden.[xxxvi]
- The 18th dynasty artifacts fit the time of Horemheb and the statuette may be Horemheb’s daughter and Solomon’s wife.
- Archaeologists date Solomon in the Iron Age IIA (1000 to 925 B.C.).[xxxvii] James Pritchard says that Iron Age IIA cities were “like villages . . . with relatively small public buildings and poorly constructed dwellings with clay floors. . . . The magnificence of the age of Solomon is . . . decidedly lackluster, but I Kings implies exactly the opposite.”[xxxviii] Scholars also consider the 10th century B.C. as “the dark age” of Palestinian art.[xxxix] Thus, most archaeologists believe the Biblical story of Solomon’s glory is either greatly exaggerated or completely fictitious.
- By dating Horemheb (Zeserk) to the time of Solomon, the archaeological age of Solomon is not Iron Age IIA, but Late Bronze IIA.[xl] Excavation of Late Bronze IIA Megiddo uncovered the largest and richest collection of carved ivory (200 plaques), gold vessels and stylish jewelry ever found in Palestine.[xli]
- This palace represents the zenith of glory, wealth and outstanding architecture of Palestine. The bathroom was paved with seashells.
- One ivory plaque shows a king or governor sitting on a throne with cherubim on each side of the throne.
- The enthroned man could be Solomon visiting Megiddo, or Baana, son of Ahilud, whom Solomon appointed as governor of Meggido (1 Kings 4:12).
- Meggido’s gate was constructed of ashlar (finely cut) blocks of stone with inserted cedar beams, exactly as 1 Kings 7:9-12 describes Solomon’s buildings.265
- 1 Kings 9:15;11:17: Solomon built the Millo, a massive terrace system with stone retainer walls. Kenyon excavated the Millo and dated it in the late Bronze Age, 340 years before Solomon. 266 But the late Bronze Age includes the reign of Horemheb, the Pharaoh I put parallel to Solomon.
HOREMHEB IDENTIFIED AS PHARAOH SHISHAK
- Pharaoh Shishak hosted Jeroboam when he fled to Egypt from Solomon (1 Kings 11:40) and later invaded Jerusalem 5 years after Solomon died in 925 B.C., sacking all of Solomon’s treasure (1 Kings 14:25ff).
- Ted’s new chronology dates Horemheb’s reign from 979 to 920 B.C., which includes the years that Pharaoh Shishak reigned.
- All Biblical, historical and archaeological scholars have traditionally identified Sheshonk
I of the 22nd dynasty as Pharaoh Shishak. Lesson 22 will give devastating evidence that proves Sheshonk I cannot be Pharaoh Shishak.
- How can Horemheb be Pharaoh Shishak? Horemheb’s throne name is “Zeserk-hepru¬re.” 267 Zeserk, or Siserk, is as close to Shishak (Hebrew) as Sheshonk. All of the evidence above that Horemheb (Zeserk) was contemporary with David and Solomon supports our identification of him as Pharaoh Shishak.
- Most of Horemheb’s (Zeserk’s) records were destroyed by Rameses II, explaining why his conquest of Jerusalem in Rehoboam’s 5th year has not been found.
- Horemheb’s uncalibrated carbon-14 dates vary from 1082 to 926 B.C., supporting Ted’s dates of his reign from 979-920 B.C., but contradicting scholars’ dates (1319-1292 B.C.) by 237 years. The 926 B.C. carbon-14 date for Horemheb (Zerserk) fits precisely Pharaoh’s Shishak’s invasion of Jerusalem in 925 B.C.
- Derricourt reports, “Radiocarbon dates [are] considerably lower than the calendar dates…. This discrepancy has led many Egyptologists either to cast doubt on the C-14 method or to reject its applicability to Egypt.”268
NO SELF EXAM QUESTION
265 Rohl, Pharaohs & Kings, p. 177.
266 Ibid., p.180.
267 Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, III.7 (12), 22 (42).
268 Robin Derricourt, “Radiocarbon Chronology for Egypt & N. Africa,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 42.4.271-7, Oct., 1983.
[i] Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, p. 28-30.
[ii] Kathleen Kenyon, Archaeology in the Holy Land, Thomas Nelson, 1979, p. 208.
[iii] Micha Ashkenazi, archaeologist and tourist guide, from Jerusalem, 1991.
[iv] Bryant Wood, “Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho?”, Biblical Archaeological Review, March/April, 1990, 44-59.
[x] Ibid., p. 53
[xi] S.G.E. Bowman, J. C. Ambers & M. N. Lee, “Re-evaluation of British Museum Radiocarbon Dates Issued Between 1980 and 1984,” Radiocarbon, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1990, pp.59-79.
[xii] Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd Ed., II.1.100.
[xiii] Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible. p. 226.
[xiv] David Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, p. 306.
[xv] James B. Pritchard (ed.), “The Execration of Asiatic Princes,” Ancient Far Eastern Texts, p.328.
[xvi] David Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, pp. 309-311.
[xvii] Mazar, op. cit., pp. 197, 198
[xviii] Mazar, op. cit., pp. 197, 198
[xix] Cambridge Ancient History, II.1.346
[xx] Breasted, Trans., Ancient Records of Egypt, II.125 (303), translated “Amu” as “Asiatics”.
[xxi] Velikovsky in his book, Ages in Chaos, is the first to make this identification.
[xxii] Genesis 14:7; Numbers 13:29; 14:25; et. al.
[xxiii] Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd Ed., II.1.294.
[xxiv] Immanuel Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, pp. 63-66.
[xxv] Yohanan Aharoni, The Macmillan Bible Atlas (New York: Macmillan, 1968), p. 34
[xxvi] Gen. 14:13; 39:14,17; 41:12; Ex. 1:15,16,19; 2:7, 11; 21:2; Deut. 15:12; Jer. 34:9.
[xxvii] Pritchard, Ancient Far Eastern Texts, p. 22.
[xxviii] Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd Ed., II.1.444-52.
[xxix] “Egyptian Chronology & The Irish Oak Calibration,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol.
44, p. 312, Oct. 1985; B.M. 736b (R.19) of 3101 -1950 A.D. = 1151 B.C. + or – 51 years, uncalibrated.
[xxx] Pritchard, Ancient Far Eastern Texts, p. 247.
[xxxi] A. Cambridge Ancient History, II.2.70.
[xxxii] Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, III.6-7 (10-12).
[xxxiii] Hayes, Scepter of Egypt, II.309.
[xxxiv] Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, pp. 184-185.
[xxxv] Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, III.20 (34).
[xxxvi] David Rohl, op. cit., pp. 181-183.
[xxxvii] Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, p. 30.
[xxxviii] James Pritchard, Solomon & Sheba, p. 35 cited by David Rohl, Pharaohs & Kings, p. 174.
[xxxix] Kathleen Kenyon, Archaeology in the Holy Land, 1960 Ed., cited by Rohl, Ibid., p. 174.
[xl] Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, p. 30.
[xli] David Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, pp. 173-185.