Lesson 4

Remember this as we continue through the course; true science is facts that have been substantiated by observation, or reproduction with corresponding results to that being tested.

Science = knowledge

Scientific method – Method of research with defined steps that include experiments and careful observation. And, –Tests the hypothesis

Hypothesis – suggested explanation for an event, which can be tested.

Scientific Theory= A scientific theory is a generally accepted, thoroughly tested and confirmed explanation for a set of observations or phenomena.

Laws = concise descriptions of parts of the world that are agreeable to formulaic or mathematical description.

Again, first scientific theory to explain something that exists, Scientific method, is the way we test the theory that leads to Hypotheses, or tentative explanations and when all testing confirms the theory you have becomes scientific law… 2 + 2 = 4 is a mathematical fact, and a scientific fact and therefore a “law”.

Anthropic principle:  The earth was designed for biological life, Scientists have discovered that the most fundamental characteristics of our earth and cosmos are so finely tuned that if just one of them were even slightly different, life as we know it couldn’t exist, and it agrees with the Bible which states that God formed the earth to be inhabited (Isaiah 45:18).

1st law of Thermal dynamics: The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed.

2nd law of Thermal dynamics says, in simple terms, entropy (Entropy is the general trend of the universe toward death and disorder…)  always increases. This principle explains, for example, why you can’t unscramble an egg.  In other words, it is dying…

Uniformitarianism is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe.

So True Science comes within all these Boundaries…. Apologetics is a defense that God exists proven by scientific principles and laws:

The earth is finely tuned, yet running down, and there is only a certain amount of energy that exists even though it may be changed from one for to another, for instance when gas is burned it is turned into carbon dioxide, Creation fulfills these laws and principles according to correct scientific procedure.

Finally, we find modern science confirms scripture.


Processes That Indicate a Young Solar System and Universe

Indeed, in 2014 the MIT physicist Max Tegmark argues in “Our Mathematical Universe” that mathematics is the fundamental world reality that drives the universe. As I would say, mathematics is operating in a god-like fashion.

Atmospheric Helium

Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements.

After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this figure in the Sun and in Jupiter. This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, and is believed to have been formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars.

Another excellent evidence for a young earth is provided by the small amount of helium in our present-day atmosphere. Evolutionists maintain that the radioactive decay processes of uranium and thorium that produce helium have been occurring in the earth’s crust for billions of years. But if this decay has been going on for billions of years, the earth’s atmosphere should contain much more than the present 1 part in 200,000 of helium.

The common explanation offered for the absence of the required helium is that it has been escaping out through the exosphere. But there is no evidence to support this assumption and, in fact, recent data indicate that helium cannot escape into space the way hydrogen does. To make matters worse for evolutionists, it is also probable that helium is actually entering the atmosphere from outer space by means of the sun’s corona. Realistic calculations based on available figures disclose that the amount of time required for natural alpha decay processes to have produced the observed helium is approximately 10,000 years.

Pleochroic Halos

Radiohalo’s or pleochroic halos are microscopic, spherical shells of discoloration within minerals such as biotite (a black, dark brown, or greenish black variety of mica) that occur in granite and other igneous rocks. The shells are zones of radiation damage caused by the inclusion of minute radioactive crystals within the host crystal structure.

Creationists point to evidence from the study of rapidly decaying radioactive elements and pleochroic halos to support their belief that creation was sudden and complete.

Robert Gentry, the world’s leading authority on radiohaloes has studied the mysterious case of polonium radiohaloes extensively and reached some startling conclusions that confirm the creationist’s viewpoint.

Polonium 218 has been considered a daughter element of the natural decay of uranium, but through the works of Dr. Gentry and other researchers, polonium halos have been found in mica and fluorite without any evidence of parents.

In other words, it was primordial- present in the original granite from the very beginning. Also, and most significantly, polonium halos should not exist because of their extremely short half-lives. Polonium 218 has a half-life of only three minutes. If the evolutionist’ interpretation was correct and the rock formations gradually cooled over millions of years, the polonium would have decayed into other elements long ago.

Thus, the evidence clearly points to an instantaneous crystallization of the host basement rocks of the earth concurrent with the formation of the polonium. Simply stated, the presence of polonium radiohaloes is one of the greatest blows to evolutionary thinking because it speaks so eloquently of instantaneous creation.

While these facts raise absolute havoc with the evolutionary framework, they are in complete harmony with the creationists’ viewpoint. As the Scriptures record “the evening and morning were the first day” (Gen1:5). The deliberate and emphatic repetition of this phrase throughout Genesis 1 clearly indicates that these were literal 24-hour creative periods. The creation was accomplished in six literal days not through billions of years of gradual development (Exodus 20:11). How appropriate are the words of the psalmist at this juncture: “By the word of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth… For he spake, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast” (Ps. 33:6, 9).

Meteoric Material

If the geologic column was deposited uniformly over billions of years, why is it the case that only the surface rock layers provide meteoric evidence? One would not expect to find billions of years of geologic deposits without finding any evidence of meteor strikes. Yet there is no evidence of meteor strikes including huge craters below the surface. Uniformitarianists are notably silent on this matter. Creationists view these finds as evidence for a young earth.

Do you remember this law?

Uniformitarianism is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe.


Comets journey around the sun and are assumed to be the same age as the solar system. Each time a comet orbits the sun, a small part of it’s mass is “boiled off.” Careful studies indicate that the effect of this dissolution process on short-term comets would have totally dissipated them in about 10,000 years. Based on the fact that there are still numerous comets orbiting the sun with no source of new comets known to exist, we can deduce that our solar system cannot be much older than 10,000 years. To date, no satisfactory explanation has been given to discredit this evidence for a youthful solar system.

Poynting-Robertson Effect

The sun, acting like a giant vacuum cleaner, sweeps up about 100,000 tons of micrometeoroids each day. The sun’s radiation pressure also serves to push small interplanetary dust particles into space.  This phenomenon is known as the Poynting_Robertson effect. If the solar system is truly billions of years old, these particles should no longer be present. Proceeding at its present rate, the sun would have cleaned house in less than 10,000 years as there is no known source of appreciable replenishment. However, micrometeoroids are abundant throughout the solar system and this fact speaks convincingly for a relatively young solar system.

Star Clusters

Star clusters serve to indicate a young age for the universe. A star cluster contains hundreds or thousands of stars moving, as one author has put it, “like a swarm of bees”. They are held together by gravity, but in some star clusters the stars are moving so fast they could not have held together for millions or billions of years. Thus, the presence of star clusters in the universe indicates that the age of the universe is numbered in the thousands of years.















  1. What is the American definition of Apology? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. What is the Greek definition as used in 1 Peter 3:15 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  3. What is the foundation of Science? _________________________________________________
  4. What is Scientific method? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  5. What is the one word definition of Science ? __________________________________________
  6. Describe the Scientific method ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  7. What is a Hypothesis ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  8. Describe Scientific Theory ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  9. What are scientific Laws ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  10. What does scientific theory explain? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  11. Give a simple explanation of the Anthropic principle ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  12. What is the 1st law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  13. What is the 2nd law of Thermal dynamics ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  14. Explain Uniformitarianism ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  15. After hydrogen, What is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe? ____________________________________________________________
  16. What are Radiohalo’s or pleochroic halos? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  17. Complete this statement; Creationists point to evidence from the study of rapidly decaying radioactive elements and pleochroic halos to support their belief
  18. Comets journey around the sun and are assumed to be the same age as the solar system. Explain why this is not true and state what the probable life expectancy of a comet is: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________





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