Lesson 15 showed the serious contradictions between Biblical history from Joseph to the Exodus and the Egyptian history of the 18th and 19th Dynasties. In this lesson an evaluation of the solutions presented by different scholars will be examined. Ted Stewart will present his own solution, which he strongly believes is the discovery of the true Pharaohs of Joseph, Moses and the Exodus.
To examine evidence which will establish the true Pharaohs during the times of Joseph, Moses and the Exodus from Egypt.
LESSON OBJECTIVES: You will . . .
- Consider Emmanuel Velikovsky’s statement about the misdating of Egyptian history and his proposed solution to the problem.
- Examine some ideas presented by other men (Courville and Rohl) concerning the dating of Egyptian history and kings of Egypt.
- Learn of evidence which would point to Amenemhet I as the Pharaoh of Joseph’s first 11 years in Egypt and Sesostris I as the Pharaoh who appointed Joseph to be Prime Minister of Egypt.
- Consider strong evidence which presents Sesostris III as the Pharaoh of the oppression, Amenemhet III, the Pharaoh who tried to kill Moses and Menemhet IV as the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
IMMANUEL VELIKOVSKY’S PROPOSED SOLUTION EXAMINED
- Velikovsky Claimed Egyptian History Was Misdated by 500 Years and Would Harmonize with Bible History When Accurately Dated[i]
- Velikovsky cited Ipuwer, an Egyptian high priest, who appeared to be an eyewitness of the 10 plagues.
- He believed Ipuwer reported the invasion of the Hyksos into the delta of Egypt, linking the Exodus just before the Hyksos invasion.
- The Hyksos invaded Egypt in the reign of Dudimose I of the 13th dynasty. Velikovsky identified Dudimose I as the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
- David Rohl’s 1995 book, Pharaohs and Kings, also identifies Dudimose I as the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
- Velikovsky Misdates Ipuwer
- Velikovsky wrongly dated Ipuwer to the Hyksos invasion because Ipuwer only mentions the invasion of the Libyans (from the northwest) and the Nubians (from the south), not the Hyksos (who came from the east).
- Dudimose I’s Predecessor Disqualifies Him From Being the Exodus Pharaoh
- Exodus 2:23 and 4:19 say that the Pharaoh who preceded the Pharaoh of the Exodus reigned during most of Moses’ 40-year exile in Midian. If Dudimose I was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, then Merhetepre Ini must be the Pharaoh who tried to kill Moses, but Merhetepre reigned only 2 years and 2 months[ii], 162 not the necessary 35 to 45 years.
- Dudimose I is not the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
EVALUATION OF DONOVAN COUR-VILLE’S IDENTIFICATIONS
- Courville’s Identification of Joseph with Mentuhotep
Courville identified Sesostris I of the 12th dynasty as the Pharaoh of Joseph and Mentuhotep, Sesostris I’s prime minister, as Joseph.
- Courville found a famine inscription in the reign of Sesostris I, the second king of the 12th dynasty, that sounded like the famine of Joseph’s time.
- Courville noted that the “Canal of Joseph” was constructed during the reign of 12th dynasty kings.
- Mentuhotep was a governor, who inherited his office from his Egyptian parents. Joseph’s parents were Canaanite Hebrews.
- Mentuhotep was a high priest of an Egyptian God, whereas Joseph worshiped the Hebrew God, Yahweh.
- Mentuhotep was later expelled as prime minister and disgraced because of his pride and self-exaltation. Joseph was humble, obedient and honored Pharaoh all of his life in Egypt.
- Courville Identified Sesostris III as One of the Pharaohs of the Oppression
- Sesostris III constructed the cities of Rameses and Pithom as store cities, as the Pharaoh of Moses’ birth did.
- However, Courville dated Sesostris III many years after Moses’ birth, instead of reigning before and after his birth, as the Bible says.
- Courville Identified Khoncharis of the 13 th Dynasty as Pharaoh of the Exodus[iii]
- However, Khoncharis’ predecessor is Khaneferre, who reigned only 8 years. The Pharaoh who tried to kill Moses reigned at least 35 to 40 years before the Pharaoh of the Exodus came to power.
- Thus, Khaneferre’s 8-year reign disqualifies him to be the predecessor of the Pharaoh of the Exodus and thus disqualifies Khoncharis as the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
- Courville Also Dated Dynasties 6, 12 and 13 as Parallel to Each Other at Various Points, in Order to Reduce the Chronology of These Dynasties
- However, many 12th dynasty documents prove it was the sole dynasty of all of Egypt during its entire duration.
- Itjtowy was the capital of both the 12th dynasty and the succeeding 13th It was
impossible for a 12th dynasty king to reign at Itjtowy at the same time that a 13th dynasty
king reigned at the same capital.
- When the 13th dynasty came to power, the 14th dynasty simultaneously appeared in the
western delta of Egypt; thus 2 dynasties were reigning over Egypt when Khoncharis and Dudimose I reigned at different times over the 13th dynasty.
- Exodus 14:7 says the Pharaoh of the Exodus took all the chariots of Egypt with him; thus the Pharaoh of the Exodus was the sole ruler of Egypt.
- Therefore, no 13th dynasty king, each of whom ruled over only a part of Egypt, could be the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
EVALUATION OF DAVID ROHL’S PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
- David Rohl and Didymus I
David Rohl’s 1995 Book, Pharaohs & Kings, identifies Didymus I as Pharaoh of the Exodus, the same king identified by Velikovsky. The same objections against Velikovsky’s identification apply equally to Rohl’s proposal.
- Rohl’s Identification of Amenemhet III
Rohl identified a different 12th dynasty king than Courville did for the Pharaoh of Joseph:
Amenemhet III, one of the last kings of the 12th dynasty.
- Rohl found evidence of greatly elevated heights of the Nile in a 7-year period of Amenemhet III’s reign.
- Rohl concluded that the high Niles flooded the land and ruined the crops, causing the 7-year famine.
- The Bible Description of the Famine Does Not Fit the Flooding of the Nile
- Genesis 41:6 says that the famine resulted from hot winds (not floods) that scorched the grain.
- Genesis 41:57 says this same famine in Egypt was also “severe in the whole world, so that “all countries” came to Egypt to buy grain. The flooding of the Nile did not affect other countries.
- The famine also extended to Israel, who lived in southern Palestine (Genesis 42:5). The flooding of the Nile did not affect Palestine and the only river of any size in Palestine was the Jordan, and its flooding could not reach the area where the Israelites lived.
- No evidence of famine is found in the time of Amenemhet III.
- Amenemhet III controlled the high Niles in his reign by siphoning off the water into the Joseph Canal (built by Sesostris I) and by storing the water in Lake Moeris, as Sesostris I did.
- Rohl Also Presented Evidence of Hebrew Slaves in the 13th Dynasty
He used this to support his theory that Israel was still in Egypt during the early 13th dynasty.
- Most of the names of the slaves are female rather than male, indicating to Rohl that the Hebrew males had been killed off, leaving mostly females, confirming the killing of the male infants by the Pharaoh of the Oppression (Exodus 1:8-22).
- However, these Hebrew slaves were located only in southern Egypt, not in northern Egypt, where most of the Hebrews lived.
- The fact that mostly female Hebrew names are found in southern Egypt during the 13th dynasty is easily explained by marriages with Egyptian men who later moved to southern Egypt.
- When the Exodus occurred at the end of the 12th dynasty, which we will soon show, these females slaves in southern Egypt were too far away to leave with the majority of their fellow Israelites, who lived in Goshen in northern Egypt, and who left in a single night from there (Number 33:3-5).
- The Hebrews first entered Goshen 200 years earlier in the beginning of the 12th dynasty and they left Egypt 3 years before the 12th dynasty was replaced by the 13th and 14th
- A New Search for A Better Solution
- 210 points of Bible history from Joseph to the Exodus in Egyptian documents of the 12th dynasty found. Table 16-A records the main documentary sources to find this amazing historical synchronism.
- Table 16-B records the over-all historical parallelism between 12th dynasty and Biblical histories.
AMENEMHET I, THE PHARAOH OF JOSEPH’S FIRST 11 YEARS IN EGYPT
- Amenemhet I Founded the 12th Dynasty
- He moved its capital from Thebes in the south to northern Egypt, close to the land of Goshen where the Bible places the capital in the days of Joseph (Genesis 45:10).
- Officials and household servants attempted to kill Amenemhet I while his son Sesostris I was “away,” likely with the Egyptian army.
- Recovering from his wounds, Amenemhet I exhorted his son, Sesostris I, to exercise full control of the kingship, but warned him to beware of the officials and household servants who tried to kill him.
- Kenty-bau, Amenemhet I’s prime minister, likely led the military coup that attempted to assassinate Amenemhet I, while his son Sesostris I was gone.
- Sesostris I likely killed Kenty-bau when he returned with the army.
- All of Amenemhet I’s important officials, except Kenty-bau, were buried within Amenemhet I’s pyramid complex. The fact Kenty-bau’s tomb is missing supports the theory that he died in disgrace.
- Joseph in Prison with the Baker and Butler
- The assassination attempt by Kenty-bau and household servants explain why Joseph met Pharaoh’s baker and butler in prison in Genesis 40.
- Sesostris I likely suspected the baker and butler as having participated in the coup and placed them in prison, where Joseph met them and interpreted their dreams.
- In fulfillment of Joseph’s interpretation, the baker was hanged, likely because he was found to be an active participant in the coup.
- The butler was likely released because he was found to be only negligent, but not a direct participant in the assassination attempt.
NOTE: Egyptian records show Amenemhet I lived on for 10 years after the coup, but was too weak to resume his duties. In his place, Sesostris I acted as sole Pharaoh of Egypt during these 10 years and 35 years afterwards for a total 45-year reign.
SESOSTRIS I, THE PHARAOH WHO APPOINTED JOSEPH PRIME MINISTER
- Joseph’s Release From Prison
- Genesis 41:1 says two years after the butler was released, he remembered Joseph when Pharaoh (Sesostris I) had dreams.
- Genesis 41:25-40 says Joseph interpreted Pharaoh’s dreams to mean 7 years of abundance followed by 7 years of famine.
- Joseph’s Wise Advice and Advancement
- Store up grain during the years of abundance. This convinced Pharaoh (Sesostris I) that he was wise and trustworthy so he could appoint him prime minister of Egypt.
- The reason the office of prime minister was vacant at this time is because the former prime minister, Kenty-bau was killed after the coup attempt.
- Sesostris I feared to appoint a prime minister to take the place of Kenty-bau, because his father warned him not to trust his officials. Thus the office was still vacant 2 years after the attempted assassination, until Joseph appeared.
- Joseph immediately began to store up grain in the principal cities of Egypt during the 7 years of abundance (Genesis 41:46-49).
- James Breasted and Joseph
- Breasted included a 12th -dynasty scene of grain being sacked and then poured into a large granary, but did not specify under which king the grain was being collected.[iv]
- In Breasted’s translation of the Ancient Records of Egypt, is found the inscription of a famine of many years Courville had mentioned in his book. This famine inscription was recorded in the reign of Sesostris I.[v]
- Our Trip to Egypt to Look for the Famine Inscription
- Ted and Dot, along with Jody Jones and Virgil Yocham traveled to Egypt in 1991 to look for this famine inscription.
- They found the inscription in a tomb at Benihasan that tells of “distributing to the hungry during the years of famine.”
- On the left wall as they entered the tomb, they found an inscribed picture of the storing of large amounts of grain into a granary, the same picture Ted had earlier seen in Breasted’s History of Egypt.
- A representative of the governor of Beni-hasan counted every sack filled with grain. A scribe recorded the amount.
- A representative of Sesostris I was on top of the granary and counted every sack of grain poured into the granary and his scribe recorded the number.
- Genesis 41:48-49 says Joseph stored the grain in Egypt’s major cities and counted the grain until it became so abundant that he quit counting.
- Farther down on the same wall, was found inscribed pictures of both Egyptians and foreigners coming to Beni-hasan to trade money, products, animals and land, all for grain during the “years of famine,” exactly as described in Genesis 43-46.
- Additional Evidence That Points to Sesostris I as the Pharaoh of Joseph
- In Breasted’s Ancient Records of Egypt, is found contracts dated to Sesostris I’s reign after the years of famine, that demonstrate that Sesostris I owned all of the land and livestock of Egypt (except the priests’), as Genesis 47:17-22 describes.
- The same contracts show Sesostris I rented this land and livestock back to the Egyptians on a share cropper’s basis, precisely as Genesis 47:23-26 says.
- Amenemhet I, the father of Sesostris I, formerly constructed a fortified city in the eastern delta to prevent Canaanite shepherds from entering the delta.
- Another inscription records permission for certain shepherds from Canaan to graze their flocks in Goshen, identical to Pharaoh’s permission for Joseph’s family of shepherds to live in Goshen (Genesis 45:16-19; 47:1-11).
- Posener (Cambridge Ancient History) admits this story sounds like the time of Joseph, but believes it occurred 100’s of years before Joseph lived.[vi]
- During the reigns of Amenemhet II and Sesostris II, inscriptions and drawings show growing numbers of free foreigners from Canaan in Egypt.
- The Egyptian army is composed of many free foreigners from Canaan.
- Growing numbers of laborers from Canaan work for Egypt as free citizens.
- No better confirmation of Exodus 1:6-8 which describes the rapid growth of the Hebrews in Egypt before they were enslaved could be desired.
THE PHARAOH OF THE OPPRESSION
- Evidence for Sesostris III as the Pharaoh of the Oppression
- Sesostris III praised his general for enslaving the foreigners (Israelites from Canaan) in the north (land of Goshen), as Exodus 1:8-12 describes.
- Sesostris III also took away the power from the governors of Egypt and appointed 2 prime ministers, one over the South and one over the North.
- Sesostris III hated foreigners and wrote curses against them.
- Sesostris III said the only way to make foreigners to respect him was to smash them in the face.
- Sesostris III’s statues show his stern cruelty in his face and stiff arms from his youth to his middle years: see two statues of Sesostris III.
- Sesostris I’s kind statue of his youth contrasts with the sinister statues of Sesostris III.
- Sesostris III used large slave gangs to construct the store cities of Rameses and Pithom in Goshen (Exodus 1:11). 500 years later Ramses II built his new capital on top of the old store city called Rameses.
- Sesostris III constructed out of mud-brick, mixed with straw, as Exodus 5:6-18 describes. Ramses II constructed his new capital Pi-Rameses out of stone.
- Sesostris III threw his enemies into the Nile, just as the Pharaoh of the oppression did to Israelite infants (Exodus 1:22).
- Sesostris III gave instructions to mid-wives, as the Pharaoh of the oppression also did in the time of Moses’ birth (Exodus 1:15-20).
- Sesostris III cursed the sons of Anak who were building large cities in Canaan, as was the case during the time of Moses (Numbers 13:27-33).
- Amenemhet III, the Pharaoh Who Tried to Kill Moses
- Sesostris III reigned 38 years. Since he had been reigning for some time before he enslaved Israel and before Moses was born, he must have died when Moses was about 22 to 30 years of age (c. 1504 to 1496 B.C.)
- Sesostris III’s son, Amenemhet III, reigned 48 years after his father’s death, dating his death about 1456 to 1450 B.C., 30 to 36 years after Moses’ left Egypt to go to Midian.
- Amenemhet III also tossed his enemies into the Nile, as his father did, as the Biblical Pharaohs of the Oppression did to Israelite male infants.
- Amenemhet III also used mud brick, mixed with straw, to continue construction in the land of Goshen (Wadi Tumilat) and also to build his own pyramid.
- Amenemhet III sent the bricks to the “head of police” in the land of Goshen, proving that armed policemen, or taskmasters, guarded over the Hebrew slaves who were constructing in Goshen during his reign.
- Amenemhet IV, the Pharaoh of the Exodus
- Amenemhet IV, the last male Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty fits the infamous Pharaoh of the Exodus.
- His short reign of 9 years (less years of co-reign) harmonizes with the short reign of the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
- Previous 12th dynasty kings constructed large pyramids in which they were buried. The
pyramid and tomb of Amenemhet IV has never been found. His skeleton likely still lies at the bottom of the Red Sea.
- His firstborn son did not succeed him to the throne (he died in the 10th plague). Instead, Amenemhet IV’s sister/wife reigned in his place.
- His sister/wife lasted only 3 years. Then, the glorious 12th dynasty, one of the wealthiest and most powerful in history, mysteriously fell.
- Two new dynasties (the 13th and 14th ) began to reign over a divided Egypt.
- Eye Witness Record of the Ten Plagues and the Exodus
- Ipuwer, the high priest of Heliopolis, lived at the end of the 12th dynasty.
- Ipuwer describes Egypt ravaged by the Nile’s turning to blood, death of the fish, ruined crops, stripped trees, animals killed, and many Egyptians dead, filling the tombs and the Nile River with their bodies.
- Ipuwer said, “Egypt is ruined,” in the same manner that Pharaoh’s officials spoke in Exodus 10:7.
- Many tombs all over Egypt in the late 12th dynasty record a prophecy of the death of the firstborn of men and gods (firstborn of animals were considered gods). Exodus 12:29-30.
- Ipuwer records the loudest noise of wailing ever heard in Egypt, precisely the language of Exodus 11:6-7; 12:30.
- Ipuwer says slaves ran away with their master’s riches as in Exodus 12:35-36.
- Ipuwer reported that their king (Amenemhet IV) was dead from “pouring water” confirming his death in the Red Sea (Exodus 14:28 & Psalm 136:13-15)
- Beggars entered the palace without resistance; the criminal element ran rampant all over Egypt, because the army was not present to restrain them.
- The Exodus events explain the “mysterious fall” of the 12th dynasty.
- The above study, pictured in Table 16-B, summarizes only a few of the 210 historical links between 12th dynasty history and Bible history from Joseph to the Exodus.
- We can either re-date Biblical history to fit the Egyptian dates, or redate Egyptian history to fit the Bible dates.
SELF EXAM FOR LESSON SIXTEEN
- Identify the following: Ipuwer: _________________________________________________
- Hyksos: ___________________________________________________________________
- Sesostris I: _________________________________________________________________
- Sesostris III: ________________________________________________________________
- Amenemhet IV: _____________________________________________________________
- According to the teacher, the Hebrews first entered Goshen in the beginning of which dynasty and left Egypt 3 years before the end of which dynasty? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- List five points of evidence which would seem to prove that Sesostris III was the Pharaoh of the oppression.
[i] Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, 1952.
[ii] “Chronological Tables,” Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd Ed. II.1.818.
[iii] Donovan Courville, The Exodus Problem & Its Ramifications (2 vol.)
[iv] James Breasted, History of Egypt, p. 158
[v] “Inscription of Amenemhet (Ameni),” Trans. J. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, I.252-253 (Nos. 522-523).
[vi] Poesener, Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd. ed., I.2A.537.