DCCC Apologetics Course II EVIDENCE FOR BIBLE HISTORY FROM ADAM TO THE FLOOD Lesson 11

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EVIDENCE FOR BIBLE HISTORY FROM ADAM TO THE FLOOD

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Isaiah 44:6-7 – “I am the first and I am the last; apart from me there is no God. Who then is like me? Let him proclaim it. Let him declare and lay out before me what has happened since

I established my ancient people, and what is yet to come– yes, let him foretell what will come.” The Bible thus claims to be true history, both past and future. Critical scholars consider Bible history as myth.

LESSON AIM:

To convince the student that sufficient evidence exists to substantiate the period of Old Testament history from Adam to the Flood as historical truth.

LESSON OBJECTIVES: You will . . .

 

  1. Learn that the spring of Solomon’s 4th year is dated at 966 B.C.
  2. Use 1 Kings 6:1 to calculate 1446 B.C. as the date of the Exodus and 1876 B.C. as the date of God’s promise to Abraham.
  3. Reconcile these dates with related Biblical passages.
  4. Utilize Hebrew and Greek manuscripts to establish minimum and maximum dates for the Flood and Creation.
  5. Become aware of new discoveries that confirm the Biblical description of a high civilization before the flood.
  6. Ascertain significant historical, geological and statistical evidences that support the Biblical description of the flood of Noah’s time

CHRONOLOGY OF OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY

  1. Edwin Thiele’s Chronology
    1. Links between specific years of Hebrew kings and specific years of Assyria’s astronomically dated history establish the following dates:
      1. An eclipse of the sun on June 15, 763 B.C. was recorded in the 10th year of Ashur-dan III, an Assyrian king.
      2. Astronomically dated years of Shalmaneser III are linked to specific years of Ahab and Jehu, Israel’s kings, fixing 853 B.C. as Ahab’s death.73[i]
    2. Calculating backward from Ahab’s death in 853 B.C., Thiele was able to date the reigns of previous kings of Judah and Israel.[ii]
    3. Cambridge Ancient History accepts Thiele’s dates as “absolute.”[iii]
    4. The NIV Study Bible follows Thiele’s chronology.[iv]
    5. Solomon’s 4th year should be dated 967/966 B.C.
  2. Biblical Chronology from Abraham to Solomon
    1. 1 Kings 6:1 says the Exodus occurred 480 years before Solomon’s 4th year.
      1. The Exodus occurred on Passover in the Spring.
      2. 966 B.C. was Solomon’s fourth year (in spring time).
      3. Adding 480 years to 966 B.C., we get 1446 B.C. for Exodus.
    2. God’s promise to Abraham occurred 430 years before the Law (Galatians 3:17).
      1. The Law was given to Moses the year of the Exodus (Exodus 19:1-24:17).
      2. Adding the 430 years of Galatians 3:17 to the 1446 B.C. date of the Exodus, we get 1876 B.C. as the date of Abraham’s promise.
    3. Contradiction Between Exodus 12:40 and Galatians 3:17 in the NIV Translation.
      1. Exodus 12:40 – “Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Egypt was 430 years.”
      2. Galatians 3:17 says that Law (in the year of Exodus) was “introduced 430 years later” than God’s Promise to Abraham.
      3. The NIV translation of Exodus 12:40 says Israel spent 430 years in Egypt and Galatians 3:17 says the 430 years began with Abraham’s promise and ended when Israel left Egypt.
    4. Reconciliation of the Conflict Between Exodus 12:40 and Galatians 3:17
      1. The New American Standard (in the footnote) reads: “Now the time of the sons of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years” (Exodus 12:40).
      2. The New King James Version reads: “Now the sojourn of the children of Israel who lived in Egypt was 430 years” (Exodus 12:40).
      3. The Septuagint reads: “And the sojourning of the children of Israel, while they sojourned in the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan, was 430 years.”
      4. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, II. XV.2 – “They left Egypt . . . four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years only after Jacob removed into Egypt.”
      5. These translations of Exodus 12:40 harmonize with Galatians 3:17 by beginning the 430 years of Exodus 12:40 with God’s Promise to Abraham, instead of Jacob’s entrance into Egypt.
    5. Superiority of NKJV Translation of the Hebrew of Exodus 12:40
      1. The “length of time” in Exodus 12:40 (NIV), is translated from moshab, which means “dwelling,” linked linguistically to toshab, “a sojourner.”[v]
        1. Moshab can mean “length of time,” usually in regard to a sojourn of a foreigner in a strange land.[vi]
        2. In Exodus 35:3 moshab means Israel’s dwelling in tents as foreigners in the wilderness.
        3. The NKJV better translates moshab than the NIV, and allows a reconciliation between Exodus 12:40 and Galatians 3:17.
      2. Exodus 12:40 (NIV) does not translate the Hebrew word, Asher.
        1. Asher is a “particle of relation” and means “who” or “which.”[vii]
        2. The NKJV more accurately translated the Hebrew in these words: “Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.”
        3. The NKJV translation of Exodus 12:40 does not necessitate that all of the 430 years of sojourning was in Egypt; it can mean that the Israelites, who lived in Egypt, had sojourned 430 years (from Abraham’s departure from Ur to Israel’s Exodus from Egypt).
      3. The NKJV’s translation of Exodus 12:40 allows its 430-year sojourn to be equated with the 430-year sojourn in Galatians 3:17.
    6. Solution of Genesis 15:13-15
      1. Genesis 15:13-15 says, Abraham’s “descendants will be strangers in a country not their own, and they will be enslaved and mistreated 400 years.”
      2. The 400 years of Genesis 15:13-15 contradict by 30 years the 430 years of Exodus 12:40 and Galatians 3:17.
      3. Galatians 3:17 interprets the 430 years of Exodus 12:40 as beginning with God’s Promise to Abraham, whereas Genesis 15:13 says the 400 years began with Abraham’s “descendants,” not the Promise to Abraham.
      4. Abraham’s first descendant of the promise was Isaac; thus the 400 years of Genesis 15:13 began with Isaac’s birth in 1846 B.C. (400 + 1446 = 1846).
      5. Therefore, the 430 years of Galatians 3:17 and Exodus 12:40 began 30 years before Isaac’s birth (Genesis 15:13) in 1876 B.C.
      6. Abraham was 100 when Isaac was born (Genesis 21:5); thus, Abraham was 70 (30 years earlier) when the Promise was given in Ur (Genesis 15:7).
      7. Genesis 12:4 says Abraham was 75 when he entered Canaan. What did Abraham do during these five years between age 70 and age 75?
      8. Genesis 11:31 says Terah, Abraham’s father, left Ur with Abraham to go to Canaan, but they stopped and settled in Haran before entering Canaan.
      9. Acts 7:4 says Abraham left Haran when his father Terah died. (Genesis 11:32); they stayed in Haran for 5 years until Terah died.
      10. Therefore, Abraham left Ur in 1876 B.C. at age 70 and stopped in Haran for 5 years before entering Canaan at age 75 in 1871 B.C.

 

DATING FROM ABRAHAM’S PROMISE BACK TO THE FLOOD AND ADAM

  1. Abraham Was Born When Terah Was 130 Years Old, Not 70 Years
    1. Genesis 11:26 says that Terah was 70 years old when he became the father of Abraham, Nahor and Haran.
    2. Genesis 11:32 says that Terah was 205 years old when he died.
    3. Acts 7:1-4 and Genesis 12:4 say Abraham was 75 when he left Haran after his father Terah died at 205 years of age; thus, Abraham was born when Terah was 130 years old, not 70 (205 -75 = 130).
    4. Genesis 11:26 thus means that Terah was 70 years old when he began to be a father to his 3 children, Abram, Nahor, and Haran.
    5. Abraham was born 60 years after Terah began to be a father and cannot be Terah’s firstborn. The name of Abraham is listed first because he is the most important, not because he was the firstborn.
    6. Since Abraham was 70 when he received the Promise in 1876 B.C., then he was born in 1946 B.C.
    7. Terah was 130 at Abraham’s birth, dating Terah’s birth in 2076 B.C.
    8. Both Hebrew and Greek manuscripts agree on the chronology back to Abraham’s birth in 1946 B.C. and Terah’s birth in 2076 B.C.
    9. These two anchor dates enable us to calculate Biblical chronology backward from Abraham and Terah to the Flood and Adam.
    10. We can calculate this chronology with relative accuracy because the Bible tells us how old each ancestor was when his son was born. Notice these details in Genesis 5:3-32 and Genesis 11:10-32.
    11. The Greek Septuagint differs from the Hebrew Massoretic texts, giving us alternate chronologies to consider.
  2. Tracing the Biblical Chronology Backward from Abraham to the Flood in Hebrew and Greek Manuscripts
    1. Hebrew manuscripts give a minimum date of 2299 B.C. and a maximum date of 2429 B.C. for the date of the Flood. Below we show why the maximum date is superior.
      1. Luke 3:23-38 lists Jesus’ genealogy back to Adam.
      2. Luke 3:35 lists Cainan between Shelah and Arphaxad.
      3. The Hebrew manuscripts omit Cainan from this genealogy.
      4. The Septuagint Greek manuscripts include Cainan, giving him 130 years when Shelah was born. Luke’s divine inspiration puts God’s stamp of approval on the inclusion of Cainan between Shelah and Arphaxad, adding an additional 130 years to the genealogy back to Noah, giving a possible date of 2429 B.C. for the flood.
      5. However, the Septuagint usually adds about 100 years to the dates of the Hebrew manuscripts. Subtracting 100 years from 2429 B.C. would give 2329 B.C. date for the Flood if Arphaxad’s years are exaggerated in the Septuagint.
      6. Therefore, we have three possible dates for the Flood: 2299 B.C. without Cainan, 2329 B.C. if Cainan was only 30 years old when he gave birth to Shelah or 2429 B.C., if he were 130 years old, as the Septuagint states.
    2. The Greek Septuagint dates the Flood in 3179 B.C. by adding 850 years to the age of nine of Noah’s descendants when they gave birth to the named child.
    3. We have a range from 2298 B.C. to 3179 B.C. as possible dates for the Flood, with the more likely dates being either 2329 or 2429 B.C. (Hebrew manuscripts are generally superior).
    4. God’s inspired chronology is preserved completely in either or both of the Hebrew and Greek texts.
  3. Proof That Shem Was 97 When Noah Was 600 Years Old
    1. Noah was 600 when the Flood began (Genesis 7:6) and 601 when it ended (Genesis 8:13).
    2. Noah was 500 years old when he became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth (Genesis 5:32).
    3. Genesis 11:10 says Shem was 100 years old two years after the Flood ended, proving he was 97, the year the Flood began (it lasted an entire year) and 98 when it ended.
    4. Shem was 97 years old when Noah was 600 and was born when Noah was 503, not 500.
    5. Genesis 10:21 says Japheth was the “eldest” and Genesis 9:24 says Ham was the “youngest;” thus Shem was Noah’s second son.
    6. Genesis 5:32 lists Shem, Ham and Japheth in order of their importance.
  4. Calculating the Date of Adam’s Birth
    1. 3955 B.C. is the minimum Hebrew date for Adam’s creation, if Cainan is left out of his descendants.
    2. Since Luke included Cainan, we should add the Septuagint’s calculation of 130 years for Cainan, giving us a date of 4085 B.C. based on Hebrew manuscripts plus Cainan’s 130 years.
    3. Based on all of the Septuagint’s numbers, 5341 B.C. is the Greek date for Adam’s creation. see Table 11-B.
    4. God’s creation of Adam likely occurred sometime between 3955 and 5341 B.C.
  5. Bishop Ussher’s Dates of 4004 B.C. for Creation and 2349 B.C. for the Flood
    1. Ussher miscalculated the date of Solomon’s fourth year at 1012 B.C.
    2. Ussher miscalculated the date of the Exodus at 1491 B.C., 45 years earlier than the date of 1446 B.C., based on 1 Kings 6:1.
    3. This 45/46-year error caused all of Ussher’s other dates to be wrong.
    4. Ussher did not consider the 130 years of Cainan that are left out of the Hebrew manuscripts.

EVIDENCE FOR A HIGH CIVILIZATION BEFORE THE FLOOD

  1. Biblical Evidence of a High Civilization
    1. Genesis 4:2 – Abel kept flocks [shepherd] and Cain worked the soil [farmer].
    2. Genesis 4:17 -Cain was then building a city. [constructor and urbanization].
    3. Genesis 4:20 – Jabal was the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock [ranchers].
    4. Genesis 4:21 – Jubal was the father of all who play the harp and flute [musicians].
    5. Genesis 4:22 – Tubal-Cain forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron [ironsmith].
    6. Genesis 6:14-16 – Noah’s Ark: Noah was the first known ship builder; the size and shape of his ship was not equaled until the 19 century A.D.
  2. Discovery of the Ice Man[viii]
    1. A highly civilized Pre-Diluvian man was found in the Austrian Alps.
    2. He had finely tailored leather clothes and leather shoes.
    3. He used a sharp, copper Axe.
    4. He had a finely hewn bow of wood still used by modern archers.
    5. His quiver was full of finely cut arrows with excellent ballistics.
    6. His arms showed finely sketched tattoos.
    7. Carbon-14 testing of the wood in his bow gives a date of c. 3300 B.C.
    8. 3300 B.C. is in the Stone Age, when man was supposed to have worn animal skins and used a stone axe without bows or arrows.
    9. His over-all appearance and clothes fit perfectly the description of society in Genesis 4:17- 22 for the period before the great Flood.
  3. The Antiquity of the Great Sphinx in Egypt
    1. The Great Sphinx was found damaged heavily from abundant amounts of water, even though it is in a desert, indicating a gigantic flood.
    2. The Great Sphinx was repaired during the post-Diluvian period.

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE EVIDENCE FOR A HIGH CIVILIZATION BEFORE THE FLOOD?

  1. Ted’s Theory: The Flood destroyed the high civilization that existed before the Flood.
  2. Archaeological Evidences and Carbon-14 Dating
    1. Large flood deposits were found at Shuruppak, Kish and Ur (Hallo, Ibid).
    2. The carbon-14 dates of the flood levels at these three locations differ by many centuries, leading scholars to believe they refer to at least two and possibly three different local floods.[ix]
    3. The differing carbon-14 dates were linked to the strata below the flood levels between 3400 and 2800 B.C., whereas the carbon-14 dates for the strata above the flood levels date about 2250 to 2300 B.C., leaving a gap of 500 to 1100 years between the strata.[x]
    4. The range of the Biblical dates for the flood (2298 B.C. and 2429 B.C.) are confirmed by the carbon-14 dates on top of the flood levels.
    5. The missing strata of 500 to 1100 years below the flood levels is explained by the fact that the Flood carried away many archaeological strata and dumped them into the ocean, removing sometimes as little as 500 years of strata (where the ground was firmer) and as much as 1100 years of strata of prior civilizations (where the terrain was looser).

EVIDENCE FOR THE BIBLICAL FLOOD

  1. Arguments Against the Flood
    1. Critical historical and Biblical scholars believe the story of the Flood is a myth.[xi]
  2. Biblical References to A Universal Flood
    1. Genesis 6:13: the flood would bring an end to “all flesh.”
    2. Genesis 7:19-20: all high mountains were covered by 15 cubits (25.75 feet according to the Egyptian cubit of 20.6).
    3. Mount Ararat is 16,854 feet high.
    4. The mountain tops were not seen until 224 days later (Genesis 8:3-5).
    5. Water at over 17,000 feet high for 224 days would cover the whole globe.
    6. “Every living thing that moved on the earth perished” (Genesis 7:21-23).
    7. Complete duration: 1 year and 10 days (Genesis 7:11; 8:3-14, about 375 days)
    8. God’s Rainbow is God’s promise never to destroy the world again by water (Genesis 9:12- 16). God’s promise implies that a universal flood will never again occur, not local floods, which continually occurs (900,000 Chinese were killed in a flood in 1887 A.D.).
    9. Jesus and the apostles all believed Noah and the Flood constituted true history (Matthew 24:37-38; Luke 17:26-27; Hebrews 11:7; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5; 3:3-7).
  3. Historical Evidence for the Flood Outside of the Bible
    1. 2370 B.C., Sumerian Story of the Flood[xii] and Sumerian King List.[xiii]
    2. 2250 B.C., Chinese sign for a boat is a vessel w/8 mouths (Noah, his 3 sons and their 3 wives).[xiv]
    3. 2000 B.C., Gilgamesh Epic of the Flood.[xv]
    4. 650 B.C., Ashurbanipal’s Library on the Flood.[xvi]
    5. 280 B.C., Berossos, Babylonian historian wrote about the flood, Noah’s ark, and the ark’s remains in Armenia.[xvii]
    6. 70 A.D., Josephus said the landing place of the Ark was known in his day to be on a mountain in Armenia, where artifacts could be collected.[xviii]
    7. Modern historians of ancient history, including William Hallo and William Simpson of Yale University, classify the Biblical Flood as historical reality. However, they limit it to the area of Mesopotamia,[xix]
  4. Sea and Animal Fossils in High Areas of the Earth
    1. The fossils of sea life on high mountains exist all over the earth.
    2. Fossilized coral is found abundantly scattered over a large area at 6700 feet altitude about 15 miles South West of Mt. Ararat.
    3. Sea shells are found high in the canyon walls of Palo Duro near Amarillo, Texas, at 3000 to 3200 feet above sea level.
    4. John Libi of San Francisco reached the summit of Mt. Ararat in 1967 and found “a layer of waterborne fossils.”[xx]
    5. Remains of five million mammoths found buried and frozen along a 600-mile stretch of the Arctic coast of Siberia and Alaska.[xxi]
    6. Remains of a horse, a musk ox, a wolverine, squirrels, a bison, a rabbit, a lynx and many rhinoceros have also been found frozen in the same area.[xxii]
    7. 4,000 feet of frozen muck covers most of this area; an 18-inch long chunk of tree trunk was found 1,000 feet beneath the muck.[xxiii]
    8. The muck is also frozen to a depth of 1,900 feet. Drilling shows a tropical forest, including palm trees, pine trees and tropical foliage, all frozen (not petrified) 1,100 and 1,700 feet down.[xxiv]
    9. Undigested food was found in the mammoths’ stomachs, including young shoots of the fir, pine, grasses, mosses, shrubs and tree leaves, some of which only exist in warm climates today.[xxv]
    10. Water from the skies and expulsion of water from beneath the earth (Genesis 7:11) explain both the Flood and the frozen mammoths and other frozen debris and fossils.
  5. Population Statistics Support the Destruction of All Humanity By the Flood
    1. Present Growth Rate: 1945-1996 from 3 billion to 6.0 billion = 1.4%.
    2. Growth Rate from 2429 BC to 1996 AD (8 people to 6.0 billion = 0.46%) (very slow in comparison to 1.4% growth rate since 1945).
    3. If the Flood had not occurred and mankind had grown at the low rate of .46% per year for 6081 years (4085 B.C. plus 1996 A.D.) beginning with Adam and Eve (two people), the population today (1996) would be 263 trillion instead of 6 billion people, proof that the flood wiped out all mankind about 4425 years ago.
  6. Answers for Objections to A Universal Flood[xxvi]
    1. Water would cover the globe 12,000 feet high if all irregularities were smoothed out.
    2. Volcanic activity raised the mountains after the flood, leaving more space for the water to be stored under ground.
    3. Sub-terranean water: fountains of deep were expelled by volcanic heat and later returned to the same cavities where they were stored (Genesis 7:11).
    4. Ice (frozen water) in glaciers and mountains of the north and south poles would cover the present earth 3 miles high if it were melted.
    5. The water above the sky (Genesis 1:6-9) before the flood was probably a canopy of water vapor that filtered the rays of the sun, causing a hot house effect with more uniform tropical temperature over the earth.
      1. Tropical plants have been found at both poles.
      2. When the canopy collapsed, the water fell upon the earth and covered the poles, immediately freezing the mammoths and other animals, and creating mountains of frozen ice at the poles.
      3. Vast amounts of water still remain in the sky in the form of clouds from evaporation of oceans, lakes and rivers.
    6. Before the flood the earth probably had a higher percentage of land surface than our modern earth (25%). Thus, more of the earth is covered by water today than in ancient days.
    7. The collapse of the canopy also likely produced the ice age.[xxvii]
  7. Significance of the Flood
    1. If the Flood really occurred, then the theory of evolution is all wet.
    2. What normally might take millions of years would occur within months under the conditions of the Flood.
    3. The volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1981 resulted in the formation of a miniature Grand Canyon (1/40 the size) in only five days. The Flood of Noah could easily produce the Grand Canyon in one year.[xxviii]
    4. Genesis 7:11-12, 24 indicate that within 40 days the flood waters reached their maximum height, 22.4 feet above the highest mountain.
    5. The waters continued at this maximum height for 110 more days (total of 150 days) before it began to lower (Genesis 8:3-4).
    6. The tops of mountains did not appear until 79 days later (Genesis 8:5), making a total 189 days that water remained above the highest mountain.
    7. The water continued to recede for an additional 95 days (on the basis of Egypt’s 365-day calendar, which Moses used) before reaching sea level (Genesis 8:6-13).
    8. The Flood waters exerted extra pressure on the earth for a total of 324 days.
    9. Water at 17,000 feet high at 63 lbs per cubic foot at sea level exerts a pressure of 1,071,000 pounds per square foot.
    10. Imagine what abundant quantities of coal, oil and diamonds and other precious stones were formed under such tremendous pressure for 189 consecutive days, plus diminishing pressure during 135 additional days.
    11. In light of the 600 feet of strata laid down in 5 canyons in 5 days from Mt. St. Helens eruption, imagine how many feet of strata were laid down all over the world in canyons, such as Grand Canyon during a total of 324 days.
    12. Oil companies use the “flood principle” to find oil fields in the Gulf of Mexico.
      1. Oil is formed from animal remains that have been subjected to great pressure.
      2. Oil men theorized that the flood killed vast quantities of animals and washed their remains into streams and rivers that carried them into the ocean where underwater streams channeled them into the deepest recesses of the Gulf.
      3. The animal remains were compacted together by immense water pressure, turning the remains into vast quantities of oil.

 

 

SELF EXAM FOR LESSON ELEVEN

  1. Give the dates for the following events:

Solomon’s fourth year of reign: ____  Abraham’s promise:____________ The Exodus: _____  Abraham born: _____

Terah’s  birth: ____ Approximate date of the Flood: _____ Approximate date of Adam’s creation: _____

  1. List three pieces of evidence for a high civilization before the Flood.

1)________________________________________________________________________

2)________________________________________________________________________

3)________________________________________________________________________

  1. Give four areas of evidence for the biblical Flood.

1) ________________________________________________________________________

2) ________________________________________________________________________

3) ________________________________________________________________________

4) ________________________________________________________________________

  1. List three sources of historical evidence for the Flood outside the Bible.

1) ________________________________________________________________________

2) ________________________________________________________________________

3) ________________________________________________________________________

 

[i] Edwin Thiele, Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, pp. 76-78.

[ii] Op. Cit., p. 217.

[iii] Cambridge Ancient History, III.1.445-46

[iv] NIV Study Bible, pp. 502-503.

[v] Francis Brown, The New Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Hebrew & English Lexicon, 444; Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1975), pp. 52, 63, 123.

[vi] Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, Hebrew Lexicon, 63.

[vii] The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew-English Lexicon, pp.81-82.

[viii] “The Ice Man,” Time magazine, Oct. 26, 1992, 62-69.

[ix] Max E. L. Mallowan, Cambridge Ancient History, I.2A, p.242-3

[x] Ibid.

[xi] Dallas Morning News, fall of 1991.

[xii] Ancient Near Eastern Texts, pp. 42, 44.

[xiii] Light From the Ancient Past, I.33; Ancient Near Eastern Texts, pp. 72, 93. 94.

[xiv] Al Henderson, missionary to Taiwan.

[xv] Finegan, Light From the Ancient Past, I.33; Ancient Near Eastern Texts, pp. 72 , 93, 94

[xvi] Finegan, Light From The Ancient Past, I.216-7

[xvii] Finegan, Light From The Ancient Past, I.30

[xviii] Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, I.3.5-6.of Mesopotamia.91

[xix] Max E. L. Mallowan, The Cambridge Ancient History, I.2A, pp. 107 ff; and William W. Hallo, professor, Yale Univ., The Ancient Near East, a History, pp. 34 ff.

[xx] Sillier & Balsiger, Incredible Discovery of Noah/s Ark, p. 257.

[xxi] Walt Brown, In the Beginning, pp. 107-115

[xxii] Ibid

[xxiii] Ibid.

[xxiv] Ibid.

[xxv] Ibid.

[xxvi] Principal Sources: “Genesis Flood” by Whitcomb & Morris, and a paper written by Furman Kurley, former head of the Bible department at Lubbock Christian University.

[xxvii] Michael Oard, An Ice Age Caused by the Genesis Flood, Inst. For Creation Research, 1990.

[xxviii] Steve Austin, Video, Mount St. Helens, Institute for Creation Research, 1984.

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